Scielo RSS <![CDATA[The European Journal of Psychiatry]]> vol. 29 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Expression of KCNH2-3.1 mRNA is increased in small neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in patients with schizophrenia</b>]]> Background and Objectives: Abnormalities in neuronal firing, controlled and organised by a series of voltage-gated ion channels, may contribute to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. KCNH2, encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv11.1, has been identified as a potential risk gene for schizophrenia. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the second intron promote the expression of a brain-specific isoform, KCNH2-3.1, which exhibits altered gating kinetics and results in less adaptation of firing rate in response to prolonged stimulation. To determine the pathophysiological consequence of these altered gating properties, we need to know in which cells KCNH2-3.1 is expressed and how this is affected by genotype and/or diagnosis. Methods: We performed SNP analysis and in-situ hybridization on brain tissue from 37 healthy controls and schizophrenia (n = 30)/schizoaffective (n = 7) patients to investigate expression levels and cellular distribution of KCNH2-3.1 mRNA in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Results: KCNH2-3.1 mRNA is expressed in all six layers of the DLPFC. It is expressed in both pyramidal and interneuron-like cells, with significantly higher expression in small neurons in layer III and IV in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients who carry risk alleles at rs11763131 and/or rs3807373 show significantly higher expression in layer IV compared to schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients who are non-risk allele carriers. Conclusions: We have anatomically localized an increase in KCNH2-3.1 to putative interneurons in schizophrenia/schizoaffective. Our results demonstrate that the risk alleles are likely to be preferentially associated with higher KCNH2-3.1 mRNA expression, which would be expected to result in increased spike frequency and firing in layer IV interneurons. <![CDATA[<b>The role of childhood traumatization in the development of borderline personality disorder in Hungary</b>]]> Background and Objectives: There is a growing body of evidence suggesting the role of childhood abuse in the etiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Studies found that complex traumatization related to BPD include emotional/physical/sexual abuse and neglect. This study examines self-reported experiences of childhood traumatization in Hungarian inpatients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and reveal which etiological factors are most strongly associated with the development of BPD. Methods: Traumatic childhood experiences of 80 borderline inpatients, 73 depressed inpatients and 51 healthy controls were assessed with the Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire and the Sexual Abuse Scale of Early Trauma Inventory. Results: Adverse childhood experiences (neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, witnessing trauma) were more prevalent among borderline patients than among depressed and healthy controls. Borderline patients reported severe sexual abuse, characterized by incest, penetration and repetitive abuse. Sexually abused borderline patients experienced more physical and emotional abuse than borderlines who were not sexually abused. The strongest predictors of borderline diagnosis were sexual abuse, intrafamilial physical abuse and neglect by the caretakers. Conclusions: Overall, our results suggest that a reported childhood history of abuse and neglect are both common and highly discriminating for borderline patients in Hungary as well. <![CDATA[<b>Presence and correlates of apathy in non-demented depressed and non-depressed older persons</b>]]> Background and Objectives: Apathy is a behavioral syndrome that often co-occurs with depression. Nonetheless, the etiology of apathy and depression may be different. We hypothesized that apathy occurs more often in depressed compared to non-depressed older persons; and that independent correlates for apathy will be different in depressed and non-depressed older persons. Methods: In this cross-sectional study of Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO), a total of 350 depressed older persons according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and 126 non-depressed older persons, aged at least 60 years were recruited in several Medical Centres and general practices. In both depressed and non-depressed older persons, those with and without apathy as assessed with the Apathy Scale (score ≥ 14) were compared with regard to socio-demographic, clinical, and biological characteristics. Results: Apathy was present in 75% of the depressed and 25% of the non- depressed older persons. Independent correlates of apathy in both depressed and non-depressed older persons were male gender and less education. Furthermore, in depressed older persons, higher scores on the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (IDS) and, in non-depressed older persons, a higher C-reactive protein (CRP) level correlated independently with apathy. Conclusions: Apathy occurred frequently among both depressed and non-depressed older persons. Among depressed older persons, apathy appeared to be a symptom of more serious depression, whereas among non-depressed persons apathy was associated with increased CRP being a marker for immune activation, suggesting a different aetiology for apathy in its own right. <![CDATA[<b>An abbreviated version of the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia (BACS)</b>]]> Background and Objectives: A short version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) was derived. Methods: We calculated the corrected item-total correlation (CITC) for each test score relative to the composite score, and then computed the proportion of variance that each test shares with the global score excluding that test (Rt² = CITCt²) and the variance explained per minute of administration time for each test (Rt²/mint). Results and Conclusions: The 3 tests with the highest Rt²/mint, Symbol Coding, Digit Sequencing, and Token Motor, were selected for the Abbreviated BACS. <![CDATA[<b>Conventional and alternative preventive treatments in the first stages of schizophrenia</b>]]> Background and Objectives: Schizophrenia is a progressive disorder that moves through multiple stages starting from non-specific risk factors to at-risk mental state (ARMS) (also known as ultra-high risk of psychosis or UHR) to first episode of psychosis (FEP) to chronic course marred by frequent relapses and varying degrees of disability. In order to prevent a deteriorating course, treatments designed to address and possibly even correct the abnormal neuronal system functioning and psychosocial deficits need to be implemented early before potentially irreversible and maladaptive changes take place. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the electronic databases Pub-Med and MEDLINE for relevant empirical and review articles published in peer reviewed journals. Results: The review of literature suggests that a range of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions are being used and trialled in treatment of early stages of schizophrenia with varying degrees of success. Conclusions: There is a variety of therapies for schizophrenia ranging in scope from improving symptom profiles to functional recovery and a good rationale for their use early in the course of illness. Treatments that focus on integrating pharmacological, psychological and psychosocial interventions with a strong evidence base for effectiveness need to be integrated for the best chance to avert or hinder schizophrenia. Schizophrenia research is moving towards a notion that early intervention can interact with existing and intact neuroplasticity mechanisms that can be harnessed in an adaptive manner to promote healthier neural system functioning and increased stress resiliency, which will in turn lead to symptom reduction and functional recovery. <![CDATA[<b>Linguistic analysis of suicide notes in Spain</b>]]> Background and Objectives: Text analysis software like "Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count" (LIWC) has been used for the analysis of suicide notes and suicidal texts in English. This is the first analysis of suicide notes using this method in Spanish and, as far as we know, its first application to suicide notes in Europe. To compare the sociodemographic and forensic characteristics of a consecutive sample of suicide victims studying the differences between those who left suicidal note and those who did not. To study a sample of suicidal notes from Spain using LIWC, comparing it's linguistic features by gender, age and environment. Methods: 144 consecutive suicide cases were analyzed. 23 suicide notes obtained from this sample were processed using LIWC, the results were compared by gender, age and environment of the author. Results: People who left suicide notes were younger than non- writers; more frequently single, divorced or widowed and emotional troubles were reported as frequent triggers. Suicide notes written by women were significantly longer, had more emotional content, tentative expressions, denials, pronouns in first person plural and verbs in past and future tenses. Urban cases showed higher emotional expression and word complexity whereas rural cases showed a higher use of social words. Conclusions: Our study shows some differences between people who left suicide note and those who didn't and confirms the LIWC ability to detect differences in suicidal speech by gender and by the rural/ urban background of its authors.