Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/rss.php?pid=1130-010820160055&lang=en vol. 108 num. 5 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://scielo.isciii.es <![CDATA[<b>Sedation for endoscopy in 2016</b>: <b>is endoscopist-guided sedation with propofol safe in complex situations?</b>]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082016005500001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>Safety and risk factors for difficult endoscopist-directed ERCP sedation in daily practice</b>: <b>a hospital-based case-control study</b>]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082016005500002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background: There are limited data concerning endoscopist-directed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography deep sedation. The aim of this study was to establish the safety and risk factors for difficult sedation in daily practice. Patients and methods: Hospital-based, frequency matched case-control study. All patients were identified from a database of 1,008 patients between 2014 and 2015. The cases were those with difficult sedations. This concept was defined based on the combination of the receipt of high-doses of midazolam or propofol, poor tolerance, use of reversal agents or sedation-related adverse events. The presence of different factors was evaluated to determine whether they predicted difficult sedation. Results: One-hundred and eighty-nine patients (63 cases, 126 controls) were included. Cases were classified in terms of high-dose requirements (n = 35, 55.56%), sedation-related adverse events (n = 14, 22.22%), the use of reversal agents (n = 13, 20.63%) and agitation/discomfort (n = 8, 12.7%). Concerning adverse events, the total rate was 1.39%, including clinically relevant hypoxemia (n = 11), severe hypotension (n = 2) and paradoxical reactions to midazolam (n = 1). The rate of hypoxemia was higher in patients under propofol combined with midazolam than in patients with propofol alone (2.56% vs. 0.8%, p < 0.001). Alcohol consumption (OR: 2.674 [CI 95%: 1.098-6.515], p = 0.030), opioid consumption (OR: 2.713 [CI 95%: 1.096-6.716], p = 0.031) and the consumption of other psychoactive drugs (OR: 2.015 [CI 95%: 1.017-3.991], p = 0.045) were confirmed to be independent risk factors for difficult sedation. Conclusions: Endoscopist-directed deep sedation during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is safe. The presence of certain factors should be assessed before the procedure to identify patients who are high-risk for difficult sedation. <![CDATA[<b>Comparison of covered and uncovered self-expandable stents in the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction</b>]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082016005500003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background and objective: Drainage with metallic stents is the treatment of choice in malignant obstructive jaundice. Technical and clinical success with metallic stents is obtained in over 90% and 80% of cases, respectively. There are self-expandable metallic stents designed to increase permeability. The aim of this study was to describe the results obtained with totally covered self-expandable and uncovered self-expandable metallic stents in the palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. Patients and methods: Sixty eight patients with malignant obstructive jaundice secondary to pancreatobiliary or metastatic disease not amenable to surgery were retrospectively included. Two groups were created: group A (covered self-expandable metallic stents) (n = 22) and group B (uncovered self-expandable metallic stents) (n = 46). Results: Serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase levels decreased in both groups and no statistically significant difference was detected (p = 0.800, p = 0.190, p = 0.743, p = 0.521). Migration was greater with covered stents but it was not statistically significant either (p = 0.101). Obstruction was greater in the group with uncovered stents but it was not statistically significant either (p = 0.476). Conclusion: There are no differences when using covered self-expandable stents or uncovered self-expandable stents in terms of technical and clinical success or complications in the palliative treatment of malignant obstructive jaundice.<hr/>Antecedentes y objetivo: el drenaje con prótesis metálicas es el tratamiento de elección de la ictericia obstructiva maligna. El éxito técnico y el éxito clínico con las prótesis metálicas se logran en más del 90% y el 80% de los casos, respectivamente. Existen prótesis metálicas autoexpandibles cubiertas con el propósito de prolongar su permeabilidad. El objetivo del estudio fue describir los resultados de utilizar prótesis metálicas autoexpandibles totalmente cubiertas y prótesis metálicas autoexpandibles no cubiertas en la paliación de la obstrucción biliar maligna. Pacientes y métodos: de manera retrospectiva fueron incluidos 68 pacientes con ictericia obstructiva maligna secundaria a patología pancreatobiliar o metastásica no candidatos a cirugía. Se formaron dos grupos: grupo A (prótesis metálicas autoexpandibles cubiertas) (n = 22) y grupo B (prótesis metálicas autoexpandibles no cubiertas) (n = 46). Resultados: en ambos grupos se observó la disminución en los valores séricos de bilirrubina total, bilirrubina directa, fosfatasa alcalina y gammaglutamiltransferasa. Sin embargo, no hubo una diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,800; p = 0,190; p = 0,743; p = 0,521). La migración fue mayor con las prótesis cubiertas, pero no tuvo significación estadística (p = 0,101). La obstrucción fue mayor en el grupo con prótesis no cubiertas y tampoco fue estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,476). Conclusión: no hay diferencia entre utilizar prótesis autoexpandibles totalmente cubiertas y prótesis autoexpandibles no cubiertas con respecto al éxito técnico, éxito clínico, y complicaciones cuando se utilizan para paliar la ictericia obstructiva maligna. <![CDATA[<b>Endoscopic band ligation without resection in selected patients for small and superficial upper gastrointestinal tract lesions</b>]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082016005500004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background and aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic band ligation (EBL) in carefully selected patients who would benefit from this method of resection. Methods: Patients with early upper gastrointestinal and small (< 15 mm) lesions treated with EBL (Duette® Multi-Band Mucosectomy) were prospectively recruited and retrospectively analyzed between 2010 and 2015. All cases were discussed in a multidisciplinary cancer committee and it was concluded that, owing to patient conditions, surgery was not possible and that not conducting histology would not change the clinical management. A first endoscopic control with biopsies was planned at 4-8 weeks. If there was no persistence of the lesion, new controls were programmed at 6 and 12 months. Results: The group (n = 12) included 5 esophagus lesions (adenosquamous carcinoma, n = 1; carcinoma squamous, n = 2; adenocarcinoma, n = 2); 4 gastric lesions (high grade dysplasia, n = 1; adenocarcinoma, n = 2; neuroendocrine tumor [NET], n = 1), and 3 duodenal lesions (NETs) (n = 3). The mean tumor diameter was 9.6 ± 2.8 mm (range 4-15). Only one minor adverse event was described. At first follow-up (4-8 weeks), there was 91.6% and 75% of endoscopic and histological remission, respectively. At 6-month follow-up there was 70% of both endoscopic remission and negative biopsies. And at 12 months, there was 100% and 75% of endoscopic and histological remission, respectively. Persisting lesions were T1 cancers. The median follow-up was 30.6 months. Conclusion: EBL without resection is an easy and safe technique that should be considered in patients with multiple morbidities and small superficial UGI lesions. <![CDATA[<b>Enhanced flat adenoma detection rate with high definition colonoscopy plus i-scan for average-risk colorectal cancer screening</b>]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082016005500005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background and aim: The usefulness of high definition colonoscopy plus i-scan (HD+i-SCAN) for average-risk colorectal cancer screening has not been fully assessed. The detection rate of adenomas and other measurements such as the number of adenomas per colonoscopy and the flat adenoma detection rate have been recognized as markers of colonoscopy quality. The aim of the present study was to compare the diagnostic performance of an HD+i-SCAN with that of standard resolution white-light colonoscope. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected screening colonoscopy database. A comparative analysis of the diagnostic yield of an HD+i-SCAN or standard resolution colonoscopy for average-risk colorectal screening was conducted. Results: During the period of study, 155/163 (95.1%) patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 56.9 years. Sixty of 155 (39%) colonoscopies were performed using a HD+i-SCAN. Adenoma-detection-rates during the withdrawal of the standard resolution versus HD+i-SCAN colonoscopies were 29.5% and 30% (p = n.s.). Adenoma/colonoscopy values for standard resolution versus HD+i-SCAN colonoscopies were 0.46 (SD = 0.9) and 0.72 (SD = 1.3) (p = n.s.). A greater number of flat adenomas were detected in the HD+i-SCAN group (6/60 vs. 2/95) (p < .05). Likewise, serrated adenomas/polyps per colonoscopy were also higher in the HD+i-SCAN group. Conclusions: A HD+i-SCAN colonoscopy increases the flat adenoma detection rate and serrated adenomas/polyps per colonoscopy compared to a standard colonoscopy in average-risk screening population. HD+i-SCAN is a simple, available procedure that can be helpful, even for experienced providers. The performance of HD+i-SCAN and substantial prevalence of flat lesions in our average-risk screening cohort support its usefulness in improving the efficacy of screening colonoscopies. <![CDATA[<b>HBsAg seroclearance or seroconversion induced by peg-interferon alpha and lamivudine or adefovir combination therapy in chronic hepatitis B treatment</b>: <b>a meta-analysis and systematic review</b>]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082016005500006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background and aims: Seroclearance or seroconversion of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is generally considered as a clinical endpoint. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of combined therapy with pegylated interferon alpha (PEG-IFNα) with or without lamivudine (LAM) or adefovir (ADV) on HBsAg seroclearance or seroconversion in subjects with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Methods: Randomized controlled trials performed through May 30th 2015 in adults with CHB receiving PEG-IFNα and LAM or ADV combination therapy or monotherapy for 48-52 weeks were included. The Review Manager Software 5.2.0 was used for the meta-analysis. Results: No statistical differences in HBsAg seroclearance (9.9% vs. 7.1%, OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 0.75, 2.90; p = 0.26) or HBsAg seroconversion (4.2% vs. 3.7%, OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 0.57, 2.37; p = 0.67) rates were noticed between PEG-IFNα + LAM and PEG-IFN α + placebo during post-treatment follow-up for 24-26-weeks in subjects with hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg)-positive CHB. No statistical differences in HBsAg clearance (10.5% vs. 6.4%, OR = 1.68, 95% CI: 0.75, 3.76; p = 0.21) were seen, but statistical differences in HBsAg seroconversion (6.3% vs. 0%, OR = 7.22, 95% CI: 1.23, 42.40; p = 0.03) were observed, between PEG-IFNα + ADV and PEG-IFNα for 48-52 weeks of treatment in subjects with HBeAg-positive CHB. A systematic evaluation showed no differences in HBsAg disappearance and seroconversion rates between PEG-IFNα + placebo and PEG-IFNα + LAM for 48-52 weeks in subjects with HBeAg-positive CHB. A systematic assessment found no differences in HBsAg disappearance and seroconversion rates between PEG-IFNα + placebo and PEG-IFNα + LAM during 24 weeks' to 3 years' follow-up after treatment in subjects with HBeAg-negative CHB. Conclusion: Combined therapy with PEG-IFNα and LAM or ADV was not superior to monotherapy with PEG-IFNα in terms of HBsAg seroclearance or seroconversion. <![CDATA[<b>Endoscopic ampullectomy</b>: <b>a technical review</b>]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082016005500007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Background and aim: This article provides a practical review to undertaking safe endoscopic ampullectomy and highlights some of the common difficulties with this technique as well as offering strategies to deal with these challenges. Methods: We conducted a review of studies regarding endoscopic ampullectomy for ampullary neoplasms with special focus on techniques. Results: Accurate preoperative diagnosis and staging of ampullary tumors is imperative for predicting prognosis and determining the most appropriate therapeutic approach. The optimal technique for endoscopic ampullectomy is dependent on the lesions size. En bloc resection is recommended for lesions confined to the papilla. There is no significant evidence to support the submucosal injection before ampullectomy. There is no consensus regarding the optimal current and power output for endoscopic ampulectomy. The benefits of a thermal adjunctive therapy remain controversial. A prophylactic pancreatic stent reduces the incidence and severity of pancreatitis post-ampullectomy. Conclusions: Endoscopic ampullectomy is a safe and efficacious therapeutic procedure for papillary adenomas in experienced endoscopist and it can avoid the need for surgical intervention. <![CDATA[<b>Portal hypertensive polyps, a new entity?</b>]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082016005500008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Presentamos el caso clínico de una mujer de 62 años de edad, con antecedentes de cirrosis hepática secundaria a hepatitis autoinmune, hipertensión portal y coagulopatía, quien presenta en gastroscopia, unas lesiones polipoideas, semipediculadas, polilobuladas en la región prepilórica, que se extirpan y cuya anatomía patológica se describe como pólipos hiperplásicos con edema, congestión vascular e hiperplasia del músculo liso, sin displasia ni cambios adenomatosos, correspondientes a "pólipos de la hipertensión portal" (PHP). <![CDATA[<b>Successful balloon overtube-guided colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection by a gastroscope</b>]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082016005500009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Presentamos el caso clínico de una mujer de 62 años de edad, con antecedentes de cirrosis hepática secundaria a hepatitis autoinmune, hipertensión portal y coagulopatía, quien presenta en gastroscopia, unas lesiones polipoideas, semipediculadas, polilobuladas en la región prepilórica, que se extirpan y cuya anatomía patológica se describe como pólipos hiperplásicos con edema, congestión vascular e hiperplasia del músculo liso, sin displasia ni cambios adenomatosos, correspondientes a "pólipos de la hipertensión portal" (PHP). <![CDATA[<b>Endoscopic diagnosis of asymptomatic perforation of colonic diverticulum</b>]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082016005500110&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Presentamos el caso clínico de una mujer de 62 años de edad, con antecedentes de cirrosis hepática secundaria a hepatitis autoinmune, hipertensión portal y coagulopatía, quien presenta en gastroscopia, unas lesiones polipoideas, semipediculadas, polilobuladas en la región prepilórica, que se extirpan y cuya anatomía patológica se describe como pólipos hiperplásicos con edema, congestión vascular e hiperplasia del músculo liso, sin displasia ni cambios adenomatosos, correspondientes a "pólipos de la hipertensión portal" (PHP). <![CDATA[<b>Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the stomach presenting as a huge retroperitoneal tumor</b>: <b>a case report</b>]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082016005500111&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en A man complained of upper abdominal pain and early satiety for one month. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed nothing special. A CT scan of the abdomen was performed, which demonstrated a huge heterogeneous retroperitoneal mass close to the dorsal wall of the stomach and surrounding the abdominal aortic and celiac trunk. The resected specimen suggested that an irregular tumor invaded the dorsal wall of the stomach. Postoperative histological examination confirmed that it was a gastric squamous cell carcinoma. <![CDATA[<b>Acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis in <i>falciparum</i> malaria</b>]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082016005500112&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Malaria is a pathology caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, characteristic of tropical countries. The most frequent symptomatology includes cerebral malaria, jaundice, convulsive crisis, anemia, hypoglycemia, kidney failure and metabolic acidosis, among others. We are presenting the case of a patient diagnosed with malaria who suffered from acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis and evolved poorly, as an example of this combination of symptoms, rarely found in our country.<hr/>La malaria o paludismo es una patología causada por un parásito denominado Plasmodium, propia de países tropicales. Entre la sintomatología más frecuente destaca la malaria cerebral, ictericia, crisis convulsivas, anemia, hipoglucemia, fallo renal y acidosis metabólica, entre otras. Presentamos el caso de un paciente diagnosticado de paludismo, que presentó un cuadro de pancreatitis aguda necroticohemorrágica con mala evolución, como ejemplo inusual de dicha asociación descrita en nuestro país. <![CDATA[<b>Liver failure posthepatectomy and biliary fistula</b>: <b>multidisciplinar treatment. Case report</b>]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082016005500113&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Malaria is a pathology caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, characteristic of tropical countries. The most frequent symptomatology includes cerebral malaria, jaundice, convulsive crisis, anemia, hypoglycemia, kidney failure and metabolic acidosis, among others. We are presenting the case of a patient diagnosed with malaria who suffered from acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis and evolved poorly, as an example of this combination of symptoms, rarely found in our country.<hr/>La malaria o paludismo es una patología causada por un parásito denominado Plasmodium, propia de países tropicales. Entre la sintomatología más frecuente destaca la malaria cerebral, ictericia, crisis convulsivas, anemia, hipoglucemia, fallo renal y acidosis metabólica, entre otras. Presentamos el caso de un paciente diagnosticado de paludismo, que presentó un cuadro de pancreatitis aguda necroticohemorrágica con mala evolución, como ejemplo inusual de dicha asociación descrita en nuestro país. <![CDATA[<b>Lupus como manifestación paraneoplásica de colangiocarcinoma</b>]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082016005500114&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Malaria is a pathology caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, characteristic of tropical countries. The most frequent symptomatology includes cerebral malaria, jaundice, convulsive crisis, anemia, hypoglycemia, kidney failure and metabolic acidosis, among others. We are presenting the case of a patient diagnosed with malaria who suffered from acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis and evolved poorly, as an example of this combination of symptoms, rarely found in our country.<hr/>La malaria o paludismo es una patología causada por un parásito denominado Plasmodium, propia de países tropicales. Entre la sintomatología más frecuente destaca la malaria cerebral, ictericia, crisis convulsivas, anemia, hipoglucemia, fallo renal y acidosis metabólica, entre otras. Presentamos el caso de un paciente diagnosticado de paludismo, que presentó un cuadro de pancreatitis aguda necroticohemorrágica con mala evolución, como ejemplo inusual de dicha asociación descrita en nuestro país. <![CDATA[<b>Enteropatía <i>sprue-like</i> secundaria a olmesartán</b>]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082016005500115&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Malaria is a pathology caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, characteristic of tropical countries. The most frequent symptomatology includes cerebral malaria, jaundice, convulsive crisis, anemia, hypoglycemia, kidney failure and metabolic acidosis, among others. We are presenting the case of a patient diagnosed with malaria who suffered from acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis and evolved poorly, as an example of this combination of symptoms, rarely found in our country.<hr/>La malaria o paludismo es una patología causada por un parásito denominado Plasmodium, propia de países tropicales. Entre la sintomatología más frecuente destaca la malaria cerebral, ictericia, crisis convulsivas, anemia, hipoglucemia, fallo renal y acidosis metabólica, entre otras. Presentamos el caso de un paciente diagnosticado de paludismo, que presentó un cuadro de pancreatitis aguda necroticohemorrágica con mala evolución, como ejemplo inusual de dicha asociación descrita en nuestro país. <![CDATA[<b>Una causa infrecuente de dolor abdominal en el niño</b>]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082016005500116&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Malaria is a pathology caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, characteristic of tropical countries. The most frequent symptomatology includes cerebral malaria, jaundice, convulsive crisis, anemia, hypoglycemia, kidney failure and metabolic acidosis, among others. We are presenting the case of a patient diagnosed with malaria who suffered from acute hemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis and evolved poorly, as an example of this combination of symptoms, rarely found in our country.<hr/>La malaria o paludismo es una patología causada por un parásito denominado Plasmodium, propia de países tropicales. Entre la sintomatología más frecuente destaca la malaria cerebral, ictericia, crisis convulsivas, anemia, hipoglucemia, fallo renal y acidosis metabólica, entre otras. Presentamos el caso de un paciente diagnosticado de paludismo, que presentó un cuadro de pancreatitis aguda necroticohemorrágica con mala evolución, como ejemplo inusual de dicha asociación descrita en nuestro país.