Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/rss.php?pid=1130-010820180002&lang=en vol. 110 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://scielo.isciii.es <![CDATA[Pursuing excellence in ERCP]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082018000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Biliary cannulation effectiveness and pancreatitis risk using two early precut techniques]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082018000200002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en RESUMEN Introducción: las técnicas de precorte permiten alcanzar tasas de canulación biliar próximas al 100% aunque pueden elevar el riesgo de complicaciones. Recientemente, el precorte de aguja precoz se ha demostrado seguro y se propone como recurso preventivo de pancreatitis en casos de canulación difícil. El objetivo del presente estudio es evaluar las tasas de canulación y pancreatitis de dos técnicas de precorte ejecutadas precozmente. Pacientes y método: estudio retrospectivo de las colangio-pancreatografías retrógradas endoscópicas (CPRE) realizadas entre 2013 y 2016. Se analiza la eficacia y seguridad de la canulación simple, del precorte de aguja y del precorte transpancreático. Resultados: de 503 CPRE analizables se obtuvo la canulación simple en 369 (73,4%). En 53 casos se realizó un precorte de aguja, con éxito en 51 (96,2%), y en 78 casos se realizó un precorte transpancreático, con éxito en 75 (96,2%). La tasa global de canulación fue del 98,4%. En total se registraron once pancreatitis (2,4%), seis (1,8%) en las canulaciones simples (dos graves y una fatal), cinco (6,3%) en los precortes transpancreáticos (dos graves) y cero en los precortes de aguja. En los pacientes sometidos a precorte se registraron siete perforaciones (dos graves) y siete hemorragias, siendo la tasa global de complicaciones del 14,4%. Conclusiones: el empleo complementario de ambas técnicas de precorte permite alcanzar una tasa de canulación biliar satisfactoria. No obstante, la tasa de pancreatitis y otras complicaciones graves del precorte transpancreático es superior a la del precorte de aguja, lo que aconseja modificar la indicación de cada técnica.<hr/>ABSTRACT Introduction: Precut techniques allow for successful biliary cannulation rates approaching 100% but there may be an associated increase in the risk of complications. Recently, early needle-knife precut has been shown to be a safe procedure and is now used as a pancreatitis prevention resource for difficult cannulation cases. The goal of the present study was to assess cannulation and pancreatitis rates using two early precut techniques. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective study of endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) procedures performed from 2013 to 2016. The efficacy and safety of simple cannulation, needle-knife precut and transpancreatic precut were assessed. Results: Simple cannulation was achieved in 369 (73.4%) of 503 evaluable ERCP procedures. Needle-knife precut was successful in 51 (96.2%) of 53 attempts and transpancreatic precut was successful in 75 (96.2%) of 78 attempts. The overall cannulation rate was 98.4%. There were eleven (2.4%) pancreatitis events, six (1.8%) with simple cannulation (two severe, one fatal), five (6.3%) with transpancreatic precut (two severe) and zero events with the needle-knife precut procedure. Among the patients undergoing the precut procedure, seven experienced perforations (two severe) and there were seven bleeding events. The overall complication rate was 14.4%. Conclusions: The complementary use of either precut technique provides a satisfactory biliary cannulation rate. However, the rates of pancreatitis and other severe complications are higher for transpancreatic versus needle-knife precut, therefore the indications for both techniques should be modified. <![CDATA[Liver-kidney simultaneous transplantation in adult patients with primary hyperoxaluria. Experience at Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082018000200003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en RESUMEN La hiperoxaluria primaria es un trastorno del metabolismo autosómico recesivo que origina una hiperproducción hepática de oxalato, que no puede ser metabolizado por el hígado y se elimina por vía renal formando litiasis, nefrocalcinosis y ocasionando un deterioro progresivo y precoz de la función renal que, generalmente, a pesar del tratamiento médico precisará de una terapia renal sustitutiva. La hiperoxaluria primaria (HOP) tipo 1 es el trastorno más frecuente, se debe a un déficit de la enzima alanina-glicolato aminotransferasa que se encuentra en los peroxisomas hepáticos. Por tanto, el trasplante hepatorrenal simultáneo (THRS) es el tratamiento definitivo para los pacientes con enfermedad renal crónica terminal. Sin embargo, algunos resultados sugieren que la morbimortalidad es mayor al realizar este procedimiento frente al trasplante renal aislado. Se presentan cinco pacientes adultos con hiperoxaluria primaria y un filtrado glomerular medio de 20,2 ± 1,3 ml/min/1,73 m2 a los que se les realizó un THRS entre 1999 y 2015 en el Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre. No se observó recurrencia de la enfermedad ni pérdida del injerto hepático o renal durante el postoperatorio y únicamente un episodio de rechazo agudo tardío sin pérdida del injerto renal. La supervivencia de los receptores fue del 100% con una mediana de seguimiento de 84 meses. Debido a que el THRS permite la curación de la enfermedad y constituye una técnica segura, con una baja morbimortalidad y elevada supervivencia, debe considerarse como el tratamiento de elección en la hiperoxaluria primaria con enfermedad renal terminal.<hr/>ABSTRACT Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) is a metabolic liver disease with an autosomal recessive inheritance that results in oxalate overproduction that cannot be metabolized by the liver. Urinary excretion of oxalate results in lithiasis and nephrocalcinosis leading to a progressive loss of renal function that often requires renal replacement therapy despite medical treatment. Type 1 PH is the most common form and is due to a deficiency in the alanine-glycolate aminotransferase enzyme found in hepatic peroxisomes. Therefore, a liver-kidney simultaneous transplant (LKST) is the definitive treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. However, some studies suggest that the morbidity and mortality rates are greater when this procedure is performed instead of only a kidney transplant (IKT). Herein, we report five patients with PH and a mean glomerular filtration rate of 20.2 ± 1.3 ml/min/1.73 m2 who received a LKST between 1999 and 2015 at the Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre. Recurrence and liver or kidney graft loss was not observed during the postoperative period and only one case of late acute rejection without graft loss was diagnosed. The recipient survival rate was 100% with a median follow up of 84 months. As LKST is a curative and safe procedure with a low mortality and high survival rate, it must be considered as the treatment of choice in adults with HP and ESRD. <![CDATA[High short-term rebleeding rate in patients undergoing a second endoscopic therapy for small-bowel angioectasias after recurrent bleeding]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082018000200004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Background: Angioectasias represents the most frequently found lesion in the small bowel by device-assisted enteroscopy for obscure gastrointestinal bleeding in Western countries. Recurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding after angioectasias therapy remains unclear and data regarding the efficacy of additional endoscopic therapeutic sessions to reduce the rebleeding rate is limited. Aim: To evaluate the rebleeding rate in small bowel angioectasias after a second endoscopic treatment with balloon-assisted enteroscopy after an initial bleed during the first endoscopic treatment. Methods: A retrospective double-center study of patients with small-bowel angioectasias undergoing a second enteroscopy treatment due to a first rebleeding episode. The endpoint was rebleeding, defined as the need for a blood transfusion, the presence of overt bleeding or a decrease in hemoglobin ≥ 2 g/dL. Results: Fifteen of 37 (40.5%) patients with small-bowel angioectasias that underwent a second endoscopic therapy after a first rebleeding episode (n = 15) experienced a second rebleeding episode. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis showed that most rebleeding episodes occurred within the first 12 months of follow-up, resulting in a rebleeding rate of 33.1% at 6 months, 39.1% at 12 months and 52.6% at 24 months. Conclusions: Despite the high absolute short-term rebleeding rate, further endoscopic treatments may be beneficial due to the effective reduction of rebleeding in a subset of patients. <![CDATA[Prognostic factors of liver cirrhosis mortality after a first episode of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. A multicenter study]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082018000200005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en RESUMEN Introducción: la peritonitis bacteriana espontánea es una complicación infecciosa con impacto negativo sobre la supervivencia de los pacientes con cirrosis. Objetivo: analizar la supervivencia a corto y largo plazo después de un primer episodio de peritonitis bacteriana espontánea y los factores pronósticos asociados. Material y métodos: estudio multicéntrico retrospectivo que incluyó a los pacientes ingresados por peritonitis bacteriana espontánea entre 2008 y 2013. Las variables independientes relacionadas con la mortalidad se analizaron mediante regresión logística. Se analizó el poder pronóstico de los índices Child Pugh, MELD y Charlson mediante curva de ROC. Resultados: fueron incluidos 159 pacientes. El 72% fueron hombres con una edad media de 63,5 años y con una puntuación MELD de 19 (DE ± 9,5). La mortalidad a los 30 días, 90 días, al año y a los dos años fue del 21%, 31%, 55% y 69%, respectivamente. La encefalopatía hepática (p = 0,008; OR 3,5; IC 95% 1,4-8,8) y la función renal (p = 0,026; OR 2,7; IC 95% 1,13-16,7) fueron factores independientes de mortalidad a corto y largo plazo. El MELD fue un buen indicador de supervivencia a corto y largo plazo (área bajo la curva [AUC] 0,7: IC 95% 1,02-1,4). El índice de Charlson se relacionó con la mortalidad a largo plazo (AUC 0,68: IC 95% 0,6-0,77). Conclusiones: en la peritonitis bacteriana espontánea la mortalidad a corto y largo plazo sigue siendo elevada. Los principales factores pronósticos de mortalidad son el deterioro de la función hepática y renal. El MELD y el índice de Charlson son unos buenos indicadores de supervivencia.<hr/>ABSTRACT Introduction: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is an infectious complication with a negative impact on survival of patients with cirrhosis. Objective: To analyze the short- and long-term survival after a first episode of bacterial peritonitis and the associated prognostic factors. Patients and methods: This was a retrospective, multicenter study of patients admitted to hospital for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis between 2008 and 2013. Independent variables related to mortality were analyzed by logistic regression. The prognostic power of the Child Pugh Score, the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and the Charlson index was analyzed by ROC curve. Results: A total of 159 patients were enrolled, 72% were males with a mean age of 63.5 years and a mean MELD score of 19 (SD ± 9.5). Mortality at 30 and 90 days and one and two years was 21%, 31%, 55% and 69%, respectively. Hepatic encephalopathy (p = 0.008, OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.4-8.8) and kidney function (p = 0.026, OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.13-16.7) were independent factors for short- and long-term mortality. MELD was a good marker of short- and long-term survival (area under the curve [AUC] 0.7: 95% CI 1.02-1.4). The Charlson index was related to long-term mortality (AUC 0.68: 95% CI 0.6-0.77). Conclusions: Short- and long-term mortality of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is still high. The main prognostic factors for mortality are impairment of liver and kidney function. MELD and the Charlson index are good markers of survival. <![CDATA[Gastroduodenal lesions detected during small bowel capsule endoscopy: incidence, diagnostic and therapeutic impact]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082018000200006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Background: Capsule endoscopy was primarily designed for the investigation of the small bowel. However, it may also identify lesions in other segments of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the incidence of gastroduodenal abnormalities during small bowel capsule endoscopy and its impact on patient diagnosis and management. Patients and methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of data from 2,217 consecutive capsule endoscopy procedures performed at a single tertiary-care center between January 2008 and February 2016. Patient baseline characteristics, gastroduodenal lesions, diagnosis and management before and after capsule endoscopy were recorded and a descriptive analysis was performed. Results: Two thousands and two hundred seventeen patients were finally included in the analysis. One thousand and seventy patients were male (48.2%) and the mean age was 56.1 ± 19.5 years (range: 12-93). Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (52.3%) and inflammatory bowel disease (18.3%) were the main procedure indications. Gastroduodenal abnormalities were detected by capsule endoscopy in 696 (31.4%) of 2,217 patients. The most common types of missed gastric and duodenal lesions found were gastric erosions (35.4%), findings suggestive of chronic gastritis (22.9%), duodenal erosions (28.1%) and duodenal erythema (23.5%). This information had a clinical or diagnostic impact of 26.2% and a therapeutic impact of 15.5%. Conclusion: Capsule endoscopy detects not only small bowel lesions but also some gastroduodenal lesions that may be overlooked during an initial gastroscopy. Therefore, all gastroduodenal images should be read during small bowel capsule endoscopy as it may provide relevant information that result in changes in patient management. <![CDATA[Anal cytology, histopathology and anoscopy in an anal dysplasia screening program: is anal cytology enough?]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082018000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Background and aim: The human papilloma virus is the leading cause of anal squamous cell carcinoma. Cytological screening may reduce the associated morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to estimate the agreement between anal cytological examination, histopathology and anoscopic visual impression. Methods: A prospective study of patients who underwent anal dysplasia screening between 2011 and 2015, in a proctology clinic of a tertiary referral center. Results: During the study period, 141 patients (91% men, 87% with HIV infection) underwent 175 anal cytology tests. Of these, 33% were negative for intraepithelial lesions or malignancy (NILM), 22% were atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance (ASCUS), 33% were low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and 12% were high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). With regard to anoscopic visual impression, 46% of patients had no lesions and excision/biopsy of the identified lesions was performed in the remaining patients. The weighted kappa-agreement between abnormal cytological results and anoscopic visual impression was moderate (k = 0.48). The weighted kappa-agreement between simultaneous anal cytological examinations and anal histopathologic findings was low (kappa = 0.20). With regard to the histological examination of cases with HSIL or superficially invasive squamous cell carcinoma, 64% of patients had dysplasia of a lower grade according to the cytological analysis (6 ASCUS, 18 LSIL and 4 NILM). Conclusion: There was a poor correlation between anal cytology, histopathology and anoscopic visual impression and a high number of histological studies of HGD that were of a lower dysplastic degree according to the cytological examination. Therefore, anal cytology screening should not be used as the sole method of anal dysplasia screening. <![CDATA[The association between a positive lactulose methane breath test and rectocele in constipated patients]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082018000200008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Objectives: Rectocele with constipation might be related to methane (CH4) producing intestinal bacteria. We investigated the breath CH4 levels and the clinical characteristics of colorectal motility in constipated patients with rectocele. Methods: A database of consecutive female outpatients was reviewed for the evaluation of constipation according to the Rome III criteria. The patients underwent the lactulose CH4 breath test (LMBT), colon marker study, anorectal manometry, defecography and bowel symptom questionnaire. The profiles of the lactulose breath test (LBT) in 33 patients with rectocele (with size ≥ 2 cm) and 26 patients with functional constipation (FC) were compared with the breath test results of 30 healthy control subjects. Results: The mean size of rectocele was 3.52 ± 1.06 cm. The rate of a positive LMBT (LMBT+) was significantly higher in patients with rectocele (33.3%) than in those with FC (23.1%) or healthy controls (6.7%) (p = 0.04). Breath CH4 concentration was positively correlated with rectosigmoid colon transit time in rectocele patients (γ = 0.481, p &lt; 0.01). A maximum high pressure zone pressure &gt; 155 mmHg was a significant independent factor of LMBT+ in rectocele patients (OR = 8.93, 95% CI = 1.14-71.4, p = 0.04). Conclusions: LMBT+ might be expected in constipated patients with rectocele. Moreover, increased rectosigmoid colonic transit or high anorectal pressure might be associated with CH4 breath levels. Breath CH4 could be an important therapeutic target for managing constipated patients with rectocele. <![CDATA[Spontaneous intramural intestinal hemorrhage due to anticoagulation therapy]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082018000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en ABSTRACT Objectives: Rectocele with constipation might be related to methane (CH4) producing intestinal bacteria. We investigated the breath CH4 levels and the clinical characteristics of colorectal motility in constipated patients with rectocele. Methods: A database of consecutive female outpatients was reviewed for the evaluation of constipation according to the Rome III criteria. The patients underwent the lactulose CH4 breath test (LMBT), colon marker study, anorectal manometry, defecography and bowel symptom questionnaire. The profiles of the lactulose breath test (LBT) in 33 patients with rectocele (with size ≥ 2 cm) and 26 patients with functional constipation (FC) were compared with the breath test results of 30 healthy control subjects. Results: The mean size of rectocele was 3.52 ± 1.06 cm. The rate of a positive LMBT (LMBT+) was significantly higher in patients with rectocele (33.3%) than in those with FC (23.1%) or healthy controls (6.7%) (p = 0.04). Breath CH4 concentration was positively correlated with rectosigmoid colon transit time in rectocele patients (γ = 0.481, p &lt; 0.01). A maximum high pressure zone pressure &gt; 155 mmHg was a significant independent factor of LMBT+ in rectocele patients (OR = 8.93, 95% CI = 1.14-71.4, p = 0.04). Conclusions: LMBT+ might be expected in constipated patients with rectocele. Moreover, increased rectosigmoid colonic transit or high anorectal pressure might be associated with CH4 breath levels. Breath CH4 could be an important therapeutic target for managing constipated patients with rectocele. <![CDATA[Cholestasis after TIPS placement in a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis: an uncommon complication]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082018000200010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en RESUMEN Presentamos el caso de un paciente con colangitis esclerosante primaria que presentó un síndrome colestásico de rápida evolución, con hiperbilirrubinemia grave tras colocar un TIPS que se resolvió con una prótesis biliar mediante CPRE. Hasta la fecha no se han descrito casos similares en la literatura, ya que se trata de una complicación rara y, por otro lado, la experiencia con el TIPS en pacientes con CEP es limitada. Las causas de hiperbilirrubinemia tras realizar un TIPS son muy variadas y es crucial realizar un diagnóstico diferencial para instaurar un tratamiento precoz.<hr/>ABSTRACT We present the case of a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis who presented a rapidly evolving cholestatic syndrome, with severe hyperbilirubinemia after placing a TIPS. It was resolved with a biliary prosthesis inserted by ERCP. To date, no similar cases have been described in the literature, as it is a rare complication and, on the other hand, the experience with TIPS in patients with PSC is limited. The causes of hyperbilirubinemia after TIPS placement are very varied and it is crucial to perform a differential diagnosis to establish an early treatment. <![CDATA[Ectopic pancreas: a very unusual intestinal mass]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082018000200011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en RESUMEN Presentamos el caso de un paciente con colangitis esclerosante primaria que presentó un síndrome colestásico de rápida evolución, con hiperbilirrubinemia grave tras colocar un TIPS que se resolvió con una prótesis biliar mediante CPRE. Hasta la fecha no se han descrito casos similares en la literatura, ya que se trata de una complicación rara y, por otro lado, la experiencia con el TIPS en pacientes con CEP es limitada. Las causas de hiperbilirrubinemia tras realizar un TIPS son muy variadas y es crucial realizar un diagnóstico diferencial para instaurar un tratamiento precoz.<hr/>ABSTRACT We present the case of a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis who presented a rapidly evolving cholestatic syndrome, with severe hyperbilirubinemia after placing a TIPS. It was resolved with a biliary prosthesis inserted by ERCP. To date, no similar cases have been described in the literature, as it is a rare complication and, on the other hand, the experience with TIPS in patients with PSC is limited. The causes of hyperbilirubinemia after TIPS placement are very varied and it is crucial to perform a differential diagnosis to establish an early treatment. <![CDATA[Complicated peribiliary cysts in patient without any prior liver disease]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082018000200012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en RESUMEN Presentamos el caso de un paciente con colangitis esclerosante primaria que presentó un síndrome colestásico de rápida evolución, con hiperbilirrubinemia grave tras colocar un TIPS que se resolvió con una prótesis biliar mediante CPRE. Hasta la fecha no se han descrito casos similares en la literatura, ya que se trata de una complicación rara y, por otro lado, la experiencia con el TIPS en pacientes con CEP es limitada. Las causas de hiperbilirrubinemia tras realizar un TIPS son muy variadas y es crucial realizar un diagnóstico diferencial para instaurar un tratamiento precoz.<hr/>ABSTRACT We present the case of a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis who presented a rapidly evolving cholestatic syndrome, with severe hyperbilirubinemia after placing a TIPS. It was resolved with a biliary prosthesis inserted by ERCP. To date, no similar cases have been described in the literature, as it is a rare complication and, on the other hand, the experience with TIPS in patients with PSC is limited. The causes of hyperbilirubinemia after TIPS placement are very varied and it is crucial to perform a differential diagnosis to establish an early treatment. <![CDATA[Ileocecal endometriosis as an infrequent cause of intussusception]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082018000200013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en RESUMEN Presentamos el caso de un paciente con colangitis esclerosante primaria que presentó un síndrome colestásico de rápida evolución, con hiperbilirrubinemia grave tras colocar un TIPS que se resolvió con una prótesis biliar mediante CPRE. Hasta la fecha no se han descrito casos similares en la literatura, ya que se trata de una complicación rara y, por otro lado, la experiencia con el TIPS en pacientes con CEP es limitada. Las causas de hiperbilirrubinemia tras realizar un TIPS son muy variadas y es crucial realizar un diagnóstico diferencial para instaurar un tratamiento precoz.<hr/>ABSTRACT We present the case of a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis who presented a rapidly evolving cholestatic syndrome, with severe hyperbilirubinemia after placing a TIPS. It was resolved with a biliary prosthesis inserted by ERCP. To date, no similar cases have been described in the literature, as it is a rare complication and, on the other hand, the experience with TIPS in patients with PSC is limited. The causes of hyperbilirubinemia after TIPS placement are very varied and it is crucial to perform a differential diagnosis to establish an early treatment. <![CDATA[A question about dyspeptic patients analyzed using psychometric scores]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082018000200014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en RESUMEN Presentamos el caso de un paciente con colangitis esclerosante primaria que presentó un síndrome colestásico de rápida evolución, con hiperbilirrubinemia grave tras colocar un TIPS que se resolvió con una prótesis biliar mediante CPRE. Hasta la fecha no se han descrito casos similares en la literatura, ya que se trata de una complicación rara y, por otro lado, la experiencia con el TIPS en pacientes con CEP es limitada. Las causas de hiperbilirrubinemia tras realizar un TIPS son muy variadas y es crucial realizar un diagnóstico diferencial para instaurar un tratamiento precoz.<hr/>ABSTRACT We present the case of a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis who presented a rapidly evolving cholestatic syndrome, with severe hyperbilirubinemia after placing a TIPS. It was resolved with a biliary prosthesis inserted by ERCP. To date, no similar cases have been described in the literature, as it is a rare complication and, on the other hand, the experience with TIPS in patients with PSC is limited. The causes of hyperbilirubinemia after TIPS placement are very varied and it is crucial to perform a differential diagnosis to establish an early treatment. <![CDATA[Cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082018000200015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en RESUMEN Presentamos el caso de un paciente con colangitis esclerosante primaria que presentó un síndrome colestásico de rápida evolución, con hiperbilirrubinemia grave tras colocar un TIPS que se resolvió con una prótesis biliar mediante CPRE. Hasta la fecha no se han descrito casos similares en la literatura, ya que se trata de una complicación rara y, por otro lado, la experiencia con el TIPS en pacientes con CEP es limitada. Las causas de hiperbilirrubinemia tras realizar un TIPS son muy variadas y es crucial realizar un diagnóstico diferencial para instaurar un tratamiento precoz.<hr/>ABSTRACT We present the case of a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis who presented a rapidly evolving cholestatic syndrome, with severe hyperbilirubinemia after placing a TIPS. It was resolved with a biliary prosthesis inserted by ERCP. To date, no similar cases have been described in the literature, as it is a rare complication and, on the other hand, the experience with TIPS in patients with PSC is limited. The causes of hyperbilirubinemia after TIPS placement are very varied and it is crucial to perform a differential diagnosis to establish an early treatment. <![CDATA[Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease after liver transplantation]]> http://scielo.isciii.es/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1130-01082018000200016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en RESUMEN Presentamos el caso de un paciente con colangitis esclerosante primaria que presentó un síndrome colestásico de rápida evolución, con hiperbilirrubinemia grave tras colocar un TIPS que se resolvió con una prótesis biliar mediante CPRE. Hasta la fecha no se han descrito casos similares en la literatura, ya que se trata de una complicación rara y, por otro lado, la experiencia con el TIPS en pacientes con CEP es limitada. Las causas de hiperbilirrubinemia tras realizar un TIPS son muy variadas y es crucial realizar un diagnóstico diferencial para instaurar un tratamiento precoz.<hr/>ABSTRACT We present the case of a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis who presented a rapidly evolving cholestatic syndrome, with severe hyperbilirubinemia after placing a TIPS. It was resolved with a biliary prosthesis inserted by ERCP. To date, no similar cases have been described in the literature, as it is a rare complication and, on the other hand, the experience with TIPS in patients with PSC is limited. The causes of hyperbilirubinemia after TIPS placement are very varied and it is crucial to perform a differential diagnosis to establish an early treatment.