Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas]]> vol. 110 num. 10 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Preventing incomplete and inadequately cleansed capsule endoscopy examinations. Is it possible?]]> <![CDATA[Predictive factors of an incomplete examination and inadequate small-bowel cleanliness during capsule endoscopy]]> ABSTRACT Aim: the aim of this study was to determine predictive factors for an incomplete capsule endoscopy and an inadequate small-bowel preparation in capsule endoscopy. Methods: predictive factors for an incomplete capsule endoscopy were evaluated. Therefore, all patients with incomplete examinations performed between June 2009 and February 2016 were retrospectively included and compared with all patients with complete procedures performed between January 2014 and February 2016. Predictive factors of an inadequate small-bowel cleanliness were assessed. Therefore, the subset of patients that underwent capsule endoscopy between January 2014 and February 2016, including incomplete examinations, were evaluated. Small-bowel cleanliness was evaluated according to a quantitative index and a qualitative evaluation scale. Data with regard to patient and capsule endoscopy was analyzed. Results: 31 incomplete and 122 complete capsule endoscopies were included in the analysis of predictive factors for an incomplete capsule endoscopy. The degree of dependency (OR = 4.67; p = 0.028), performance of a capsule endoscopy in hospitalized patients (OR = 4.04; p = 0.006) and prior abdominal surgery (OR = 3.45; p = 0.012) were independent predictive factors of an incomplete procedure. 130 patients were included in the analysis of predictive factors for an inadequate small-bowel cleanliness. The mean quantitative index value was 7.3 (s.d. ± 2.3); 41.6% and 58.5% of capsule endoscopies were classified as poor-fair and good/excellent respectively, according to the qualitative evaluation. Independent predictive factors for an inadequate preparation according to the quantitative index included male gender (Beta = -0.79; p = 0.028), small-bowel transit time (Beta = -0.007; p &lt; 0.0001) and cardiac disease (Beta = -1.29; p = 0.001). Associated factors according to the qualitative evaluation included male gender (OR = 0.406; p = 0.027) and small-bowel transit time (SBTT) (OR = 0.993; p &lt; 0.0001). Conclusion: inpatient status, higher degrees of dependency and abdominal surgery are predictive factors for an incomplete capsule endoscopy; male gender and higher small-bowel transit time are predictive factors for an inadequate cleanliness. <![CDATA[Perceptions of the public healthcare system from private-care patients with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation in Spain]]> ABSTRACT Background: irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with reduced health-related quality of life. Patients with IBS benefit from positive patient-provider experiences during treatment. However, many continue to suffer from limited symptom relief and hold negative perceptions. Purpose: to identify potential barriers perceived by patients with IBS with constipation (IBS-C) within the private health-care system compared with the care under the public healthcare system in Spain. Methods: this is a multicenter, cross-sectional observational study. Patients with previous experience of public healthcare who attended a private consultation with a gastroenterologist due to constipation/abdominal discomfort, with no previous IBS diagnosis and meeting Rome III criteria at the time of survey completion without alarm symptoms, were invited to join the study. Participants completed the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patient Experience questionnaire, the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptom Severity Score questionnaire and the EuroQol five-dimensions questionnaire, reporting their health-related quality of life. Results: seven hundred and seven patients met the study criteria and were evaluated. With regard to public healthcare, patients reported feeling more positive towards their gastroenterologist (62.8% satisfied) than their primary care physician (43.9% satisfied). Patients reported moderate/severe problems with pain/discomfort (61.5%). The majority of patients were treated with fiber (85.3%), laxatives (79.3%) and antispasmodics (54.3%); 47.0% and 11.7% of patients noted little and no improvement, respectively. Conclusions: the perceptions of patients with irritable bowel syndrome and constipation were more positive towards their gastroenterologist than their primary care physician in the public healthcare sector. However, patients were still dissatisfied with the treatment and care received, highlighting the unmet need for improved patient-provider communication to achieve better outcomes. <![CDATA[Evaluación económica de una estrategia poblacional de tratamiento de la hepatitis C crónica con antivirales de acción directa]]> RESUMEN El elevado coste inicial de los antivirales frente a la hepatitis C impulsó el "Plan Estratégico Nacional para el abordaje de la hepatitis C en el Sistema Nacional de Salud". El objetivo de este estudio fue la evaluación económica de los dos primeros años de su aplicación en Navarra. Se modelizó con datos de cada paciente el cambio que la respuesta viral sostenida (RVS) produce en la historia natural de la hepatitis C frente a una alternativa sin tratamiento. Mediante simulación de eventos discretos se midió desde la perspectiva del Servicio Navarro de Salud el coste-efectividad y el impacto presupuestario de los pacientes tratados. Se trataron 656 pacientes y el 98% tuvo RVS. El coste medio de los tratamientos fue de 18.743 euros por paciente. La razón coste-efectividad incremental (RCEI) media con descuento fue de 5.346 euros por año de vida ajustado por calidad, siendo más eficiente a medida que aumentó el nivel de fibrosis, hasta alcanzar niveles de dominancia en la fibrosis grado 4. Los costes asociados a la enfermedad hepática crónica disminuyeron a medida que se fue expresando el beneficio del tratamiento. La aplicación del Plan Estratégico es coste-efectiva con una RCEI muy por debajo del umbral, ya que el coste del tratamiento se compensa en gran parte con el ahorro en gasto sanitario a largo plazo. El impacto presupuestario prevé un ahorro neto a partir del tercer año. Los dos parámetros determinantes fueron la disminución del precio del tratamiento y la RVS cercana al 100% de los pacientes.<hr/>ABSTRACT The high initial cost of antivirals against hepatitis C prompted development of the "Strategic Plan for Tackling Chronic Hepatitis C in the Spanish National Health System". The objective of this study was the economic evaluation of the first two years of its application in Navarre, Spain. The change in the natural history of hepatitis C produced by the sustained virological response (SVR) was compared to an alternative without treatment and modeled with patient-level data. By means of a discrete events simulation model, the cost-effectiveness and the budget impact analysis of the treatment program were measured from the perspective of the Navarre Health Service. Of 656 patients treated, 98% had SVR. The average cost of the treatments was 18,743 euros per patient. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) with discount was 5,346 euros per quality-adjusted life years, which became more efficient as the stage of fibrosis increased until it reached levels of dominance in stage 4 fibrosis. The associated costs for chronic liver disease decreased as the benefit of the treatment was expressed. The implementation of the Strategic Plan is cost-effective, with an ICER well below the threshold, since the cost of treatment is largely compensated by savings in long-term health expenditure. The budgetary impact foresees a net saving from the third year on. The two key parameters were the decrease in the price of the treatment and the SVR in nearly 100% of the patients. <![CDATA[The impact of a percutaneous cholecystostomy catheter in situ until the time of cholecystectomy on the development of recurrent acute cholecystitis: a historical cohort study]]> ABSTRACT Background: the optimal duration of percutaneous cholecystostomy in patients with acute cholecystitis is unknown. Methods: this study was a retrospective analysis of patients (age ≥ 18 years) who underwent percutaneous cholecystostomy due to acute calculous cholecystitis. Patients were grouped according to treatment modality: percutaneous cholecystostomy as a definitive treatment (group 1), subsequent surgical treatment after the removal of the catheter (group 2) and those remaining in situ (group 3). The development of gallstone-related complications was the main outcome. Results: there were 24 females (43.6%) and 31 males (56.4%) included in the study with a mean age of 64.8 ± 15.9 years. There were 16 (29.1%), 19 (34.5%) and 20 (36.4%) patients in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The catheter withdrawal time for group 1 and group 2 was 18.2 ± 6.9 and 20.7 ± 13.4 days, respectively. Surgical treatment was performed after a mean of 85.4 ± 93.5 days following catheter removal in group 2 and a mean of 64 ± 32.5 days while the PC tube was in place in group 3. There were one (6.3%) and two cases of a recurrence (10.5%) in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Two patients developed choledocholithiasis (10%) in group 3. Conclusion: maintaining percutaneous cholecystostomy tubes in place until the time of surgery in surgically fit patients may help to prevent a recurrence after acute calculous cholecystitis. <![CDATA[Role of the PNPLA3 polymorphism rs738409 on silymarin + vitamin E response in subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease]]> ABSTRACT Background: non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in developed countries. Lifestyle changes are the pillar of the treatment, although a pharmacological approach is sometimes required in the case of a failure to respond/adhere to the diet. Objective: the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silymarin and the influence of the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) variant on the response to treatment in patients with NAFLD in a pilot study. Methods: a total of 54 patients with a NAFLD proven biopsy were enrolled in an open prospective study and were treated with Eurosil 85(r) (silymarin + vitamin E) for six months. Biochemical parameters and cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, arterial hypertension and HOMA-IR &gt; 2.5) were recorded before and after six months of treatment. Non-invasive indexes (fatty liver index, lipid accumulation product and NAFLD-fibrosis score) were also calculated. The rs738409 PNPLA3 gene polymorphism status was also determined. Results: significant statistical changes from baseline values after six months of treatment were observed in transaminases levels but not in non-invasive index markers. Twenty patients (37.1%) were G allele carriers and had a higher percentage of lobular inflammation and ballooning on the basal liver biopsy. Patients with the G allele had a smaller decrease in transaminases levels after treatment with silymarin + vitamin E than non-G-allele carriers. Conclusions: treatment with silymarin + vitamin E produced a decrease in transaminases after six months of treatment without an accompanying weight loss. PNPLA3 G-allele carriers responded poorly to the treatment. <![CDATA[Colangitis biliar primaria en España. Resultados de un estudio Delphi sobre su epidemiología, diagnóstico, seguimiento y tratamiento]]> RESUMEN Introducción: la colangitis biliar primaria (CBP) es una enfermedad rara, de la que existe información limitada en España sobre su epidemiología y manejo en la práctica clínica habitual. Objetivos: conocer la epidemiología, flujo del paciente, diagnóstico, seguimiento y tratamiento de la CBP en España. Métodos: revisión de la literatura y estudio siguiendo la metodología Delphi con participación de 28 especialistas en dos rondas de consulta y un taller de validación de resultados presencial. Resultados: existen, aproximadamente, 9.400 pacientes con CBP en España, con una incidencia anual de entre 0,51 y 3,86 casos/100.000 habitantes, aunque el margen de error se presupone alto dada la escasez de estudios. El intervalo entre sospecha y confirmación diagnóstica puede ser de varios meses, realizándola mayoritariamente un gastroenterólogo o hepatólogo. El papel de la biopsia hepática en el diagnóstico y seguimiento es heterogéneo. El 95% de los pacientes son tratados con ácido ursodesoxicólico (AUDC) y la respuesta se monitoriza mayoritariamente utilizando el criterio de Barcelona. El seguimiento es semestral, con un uso heterogéneo de las diferentes técnicas disponibles. No existen recomendaciones ni fármacos comercializados en segunda línea en caso de no respuesta, respuesta insuficiente o intolerancia al tratamiento con AUDC. Conclusiones: aunque es posible estimar la epidemiología a partir de la opinión de expertos, se necesitan registros nacionales que aporten información precisa y actualizada sobre la epidemiología, el estadio y la respuesta al tratamiento de los pacientes con CBP, así como tratamientos nuevos para ciertos grupos de pacientes.<hr/>ABSTRACT Introduction: primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a rare disease with limited data regarding its epidemiology and standard clinical management in Spain. Objective: to gain insight into the epidemiology, patient flow, diagnosis, follow-up and treatment of PBC in Spain. Methods: a review of the literature and Delphi study involving 28 specialists in two rounds of consultations and an in-person results validation workshop. Results: there are approximately 9,400 patients with PBC in Spain, with an annual incidence of 0.51-3.86 cases/100,000 population. Albeit, a high error margin may be presumed due to the scarcity of relevant studies on this subject. Several months may elapse from suspicion to a confirmed diagnosis, usually by a gastroenterologist or hepatologist. The role of the liver biopsy for diagnosis and follow-up is heterogeneous. Overall, 95% of patients are treated with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and response is primarily monitored using the Barcelona criteria. Follow-up is performed every six months, with a heterogeneous use of the various available techniques. No recommendations or second-line commercial drugs are available in the case of no response, inadequate response or intolerance to UDCA. Conclusions: while epidemiology may be estimated based on expert opinions, national registries are needed to provide accurate, up-to-date information on epidemiological parameters, disease stage and response to treatment in patients with PBC. Furthermore, novel therapies are required for selected patient groups. <![CDATA[Tuberculosis intestinal: importancia y dificultad del diagnóstico diferencial con enfermedad de Crohn]]> RESUMEN La tuberculosis (TBC) es la infección más prevalente del mundo y afecta a un tercio de la población mundial, predominantemente a países subdesarrollados, representando la TBC intestinal la sexta causa en frecuencia de afectación tuberculosa extrapulmonar. La enfermedad de Crohn (EC) es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica intestinal que surge de la interacción de factores inmunológicos, ambientales y genéticos. El diagnóstico diferencial entre TBC intestinal y EC puede resultar un reto, sobre todo en pacientes inmunodeprimidos y en aquellos procedentes de áreas endémicas de TBC, debido a los cambios en la epidemiología de ambas patologías. Además, tanto la TBC intestinal como la EC tienen predilección por la región ileocecal y suelen presentar hallazgos clínicos, radiológicos y endoscópicos muy similares. El diagnóstico y tratamiento incorrectos podrían conllevar una elevada morbimortalidad, por lo que es necesario un alto índice de sospecha así como conocer algunas características que nos ayuden a diferenciar ambas enfermedades.<hr/>ABSTRACT Tuberculosis (TB) is the most prevalent infection worldwide and affects one third of the population, predominantly in developing countries. Intestinal TB (ITB) is the sixth most frequent extra-pulmonary TB infection. Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that arises from the interaction of immunological, environmental and genetic factors. Due to changes in the epidemiology of both diseases, distinguishing CD from ITB is a challenge, particularly in immunocompromised patients and those from areas where TB is endemic. Furthermore, both TB and CD have a predilection for the ileocecal area. In addition, they share very similar clinical, radiological and endoscopic findings. An incorrect diagnosis and treatment may increase morbidity and mortality. Thus, a great degree of caution is required as well as a familiarity with certain characteristics of the diseases, which will aid the differentiation between the two diseases. <![CDATA[Indicadores de calidad en colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica. Procedimiento de la colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica]]> RESUMEN El objetivo del proyecto en el que se inscribe este trabajo es proponer procedimientos e indicadores de calidad y seguridad útiles para facilitar la mejora de la calidad en unidades de endoscopia digestiva. En este tercer resultado se proponen procedimientos e indicadores de la colangiopancreatografía retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE). Primero, se ha diseñado un diagrama de los pasos previos y consecutivos a la realización de la CPRE. Un grupo de expertos en calidad asistencial y/o endoscopia, bajo el amparo de la Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva (SEPD), ha realizado una revisión cualitativa de la literatura haciendo referencia a la búsqueda de indicadores de calidad en la CPRE. Posteriormente, por un procedimiento de análisis por pares se ha hecho la selección y análisis de la literatura seleccionada. Se han identificado un total de seis indicadores específicos, independientemente de los ya descritos comunes, todos de proceso (dos de preprocedimiento y cuatro de procedimiento). Se ha analizado la calidad de la evidencia de cada uno de ellos aplicando la clasificación utilizada en Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) GRADE).<hr/>ABSTRACT The goal of the project encompassing the present paper is to propose useful quality procedures and indicators in order to improve quality in digestive endoscopy units. In this third part outcome procedures and indicators are suggested for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). First, a diagram of pre- and post-ERCP steps was developed. A group of experts in healthcare quality and/or endoscopy, under the shelter of the Spanish Society of Digestive Diseases (Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva - SEPD), carried out a qualitative review of the literature regarding quality indicators for ERCP. Then, a paired analysis was used for the selection of identified references. A total of six specific indicators, apart from the common indicators already described, were identified, all of them process indicators (two pre-procedure and four post-procedure). Evidence quality was analyzed for each indicator using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) classification. <![CDATA[Rectorragia como forma de presentación de un caso de síndrome de Abernethy en el adulto]]> RESUMEN Presentamos el caso de una paciente de 29 años que consultó por rectorragias autolimitadas que fue diagnosticada de síndrome de Abernethy (shunt portosistémico congénito). Se trata de un debut clínico poco habitual en este tipo de síndrome congénito muy poco prevalente. La gran mayoría de los casos descritos en la literatura se manifiestan clínicamente en la edad pediátrica.<hr/>ABSTRACT We report the case of a 29-year-old patient who presented with a short history of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. A diagnosis of Abernethy syndrome was made (congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt) after this uncommon clinical presentation. The prevalence of this congenital malformation is very low and usually manifests during the pediatric age, according to previously published reports. <![CDATA[Enzymatic mediastinitis as a fearsome complication of pancreatic necrosectomy]]> ABSTRACT Several types of thoracic complications can be associated with severe acute pancreatitis. Some are very common, such as pleural effusion, whilst some others are very rare although life threatening, such as enzymatic mediastinitis (EM). Only a few cases of EM (when related to acute pancreatitis) have been described in the literature. Here we describe the case of a 76-year-old female who developed acute respiratory failure and atrial fibrillation during the postoperative period after an open pancreatic necrosectomy, due to an EM episode. The mediastinal collection was drained by thoracotomy, following an improvement of the patient's general condition. This is the first case of EM following surgical management for acute necrotizing pancreatitis. EM is a rare but life threatening complication that usually requires surgery. <![CDATA[Fasciola hepatica in the common bile duct: spyglass visualization and endoscopic extraction]]> ABSTRACT We report the case of a 60-year-old Peruvian female who was admitted with abdominal pain and jaundice. Cholangioscopy revealed a leaf-like trematode, Fasciola hepatica. This trematode was extracted with a Dormia's basket via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). <![CDATA[Adenocarcinoma of the anal canal with an exceptional immunohistochemistry in a patient with serrated polyposis syndrome: a diagnostic challenge]]> ABSTRACT We report the case of a 60-year-old Peruvian female who was admitted with abdominal pain and jaundice. Cholangioscopy revealed a leaf-like trematode, Fasciola hepatica. This trematode was extracted with a Dormia's basket via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). <![CDATA[An outbreak of acute hepatitis due to the hepatitis A virus in 2017: are we witnessing a change in contagion risk factors?]]> ABSTRACT We report the case of a 60-year-old Peruvian female who was admitted with abdominal pain and jaundice. Cholangioscopy revealed a leaf-like trematode, Fasciola hepatica. This trematode was extracted with a Dormia's basket via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). <![CDATA[Atypical lymphogranuloma venereum mimicking an anorectal neoplasm]]> ABSTRACT We report the case of a 60-year-old Peruvian female who was admitted with abdominal pain and jaundice. Cholangioscopy revealed a leaf-like trematode, Fasciola hepatica. This trematode was extracted with a Dormia's basket via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). <![CDATA[Factors that predict the presence of non-small bowel lesions during capsule endoscopy examinations]]> ABSTRACT We report the case of a 60-year-old Peruvian female who was admitted with abdominal pain and jaundice. Cholangioscopy revealed a leaf-like trematode, Fasciola hepatica. This trematode was extracted with a Dormia's basket via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). <![CDATA[Desmoid fibromatosis of the esophagogastric junction]]> ABSTRACT We report the case of a 60-year-old Peruvian female who was admitted with abdominal pain and jaundice. Cholangioscopy revealed a leaf-like trematode, Fasciola hepatica. This trematode was extracted with a Dormia's basket via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). <![CDATA[Villous adenoma of the choledocho: an infrequent pathology of the main bile duct]]> ABSTRACT We report the case of a 60-year-old Peruvian female who was admitted with abdominal pain and jaundice. Cholangioscopy revealed a leaf-like trematode, Fasciola hepatica. This trematode was extracted with a Dormia's basket via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).