Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Pharmacy Practice (Granada)]]> vol. 14 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>Bradford's law, the long tail principle, and transparency in Journal Impact Factor calculations</b>]]> Beyond the commonly mentioned limitations of the Journal Impact Factor, we discuss the obsolete principle of selecting journals to create a fake-representative sample of 'journals that matter' and the opacity around the calculation and listing of Impact Factors. We use the example of Pharmacy Practice in 2015 for illustration. We hypothesize that a business-oriented system of measuring the science and quality of scholarly journals may not be the best option to avoid biases and conflicts of interest. <![CDATA[<b>Effects of a computerized provider order entry and a clinical decision support system to improve cefazolin use in surgical prophylaxis</b>: <b>a cost saving analysis</b>]]> Background: Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) and Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) help practitioners to choose evidence-based decisions, regarding patients' needs. Despite its use in developed countries, in Brazil, the impact of a CPOE/CDSS to improve cefazolin use in surgical prophylaxis was not assessed yet. Objective: We aimed to evaluate the impact of a CDSS to improve the use of prophylactic cefazolin and to assess the cost savings associated to inappropriate prescribing. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study that compared two different scenarios: one prior CPOE/CDSS versus after software implementation. We conducted twelve years of data analysis (3 years prior and 9 years after CDSS implementation), where main outcomes from this study included: cefazolin Defined Daily Doses/100 bed-days (DDD), crude costs and product of costs-DDD (cost-DDD/100 bed-days). We applied a Spearman rho non-parametric test to assess the reduction of cefazolin consumption through the years. Results: In twelve years, 84,383 vials of cefazolin were dispensed and represented 38.89 DDD/100 bed-days or USD 44,722.99. Surgical wards were the largest drug prescribers and comprised &gt;95% of our studied sample. While in 2002, there were 6.31 DDD/100 bed-days, 9 years later there was a reduction to 2.15 (p<0.05). In a scenario without CDSS, the hospital would have consumed 75.72 DDD/100 bed-days, which is equivalent to USD 116 998.07. It is estimated that CDSS provided USD 50,433.39 of cost savings. Conclusion: The implementation of a CPOE/CDSS helped to improve prophylactic cefazolin use by reducing its consumption and estimated direct costs. <![CDATA[<b>Prevalence and nature of off-label antibiotic prescribing for children in a tertiary setting</b>: <b>a descriptive study from Jordan</b>]]> Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of off-label antibiotics in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and paediatric wards in Jordan. Methods: Data of patients admitted to the neonatal intensive care units and paediatric wards in King Abdulla University Hospital were collected over an 8-week survey between May and July 2012. Data collected in this study included patients' age, weight, medical history, diagnosis and the details of antibiotics prescribed to each patient. Results: The study involved a total of 250 children (80 admitted to the NICU and 170 admitted to the wards). A total of 598 antibiotic prescriptions were issued for these patients (244 in NICUs and 354 in paediatricwards). The results of the present study show that off-label antibiotic prescribing to paediatric patients is very common. Off-label antibiotic prescribing to paediatric patients is related mostly to doses and indications, and rarely to age. The majority of admitted patients received at least one off-label antibiotic during their hospital stay. Conclusion: This study reveals the high prevalence of off-label use of antibiotic among paediatric children in Jordan. There is a serious need for robust and continuous educational programs to improve the awareness of paediatricians of guidelines surrounding the use of antibiotics in paediatric patients. Furthermore, true collaboration between paediatricians and clinical pharmacists towards safe and effective antibiotic prescribing in paediatric patients is crucial. <![CDATA[<b>A qualitative study exploring physicians' perceptions on the role of community pharmacists in Dubai</b>]]> Objective: The aim of this study is to explore the perceptions of physicians operating within the boundaries of Dubai on the role of community pharmacists. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were done with 12 physicians working within the boundaries of Dubai Health Authority. Interviews mainly focused on understanding the perceptions of physicians on the role of community pharmacists in addition to willingness to integrating pharmacists in patient care process. Results: Key findings show that all interviewees agree that community pharmacists are important healthcare professionals. However, 7 physicians restrict the role of pharmacists to dispensing medicines. Physicians in Dubai are willing to collaborate with pharmacists, but more than half of them (7) think that pharmacists might interfere with their jobs. Conclusion: The study concludes that all informants agree that collaboration between community pharmacists and physicians definitely enhances patients' drug therapy outcomes. <![CDATA[<b>Assessment of Texan pharmacists' attitudes, behaviors, and preferences related to continuing pharmacy education</b>]]> Background: Whether the available Continuing Education (CE) programs meet pharmacists' continuously increasing needs and preferences is open to question. Objectives: to investigate pharmacists' perceptions and attitudes concerning available CE programs, evaluate the pharmacists' choices with regard to selecting among different CE programs, and investigate the factors that are associated with preference to utilize online CE programs. Method: A 17-question survey was developed and mailed to a random sample of 600 Texan pharmacists. In addition to collecting basic demographic information, the survey investigated pharmacists' choices with regard to delivery and content of CE programs, motivations to participation in CE programs, and pharmacists' preferences for future CE programs. Results: A total of 161 pharmacists completed the survey and mailed back their responses. Excluding the 75 undeliverable surveys, the response rate was 31%. Approximately 83% of respondents found that currently available CE programs met their educational needs. The most important factors influencing pharmacists' choices with regard to CE programs were the scope programs, the location where programs are held, and the cost associated with enrolling in such programs. Online CE was the most preferred mode of CE among participants. The factors that were associated with pharmacists' preferences to complete 50% or more of required CE through online programs were previous use of online CE programs, preference to limit the duration of CE programs to 1 or 2 hour-long, and perceived ability to find adequate CE programs among currently available CE programs. Conclusion: The findings suggest modalities for CE programs providers on how to improve CE programs in the future in order to meet the preferences of local pharmacists. <![CDATA[<b>Patients' perception of pharmaceutical services available in a community pharmacy among patients living in a rural area of the United Kingdom</b>]]> Objective: Patients' opinion about prevalence of pharmaceutical services available in a community pharmacy among patients living in a rural area of the United Kingdom. The secondary objective was to identify appropriate action(s) to enhance patients' awareness of pharmaceutical services in rural areas. Methods: A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to patients visiting a community pharmacy in Eye, Suffolk, United Kingdom between July and August, 2015. The main inclusion criterion was living in a rural area. Comparisons were performed using chi-square tests and logistic regression. Results: The study included 103 respondents: 70 women (69.0%) and 33 men (32.0%), aged 16-85 years. Most respondents declared the primary tasks of a community pharmacy were dispensing medicines (86.4% of respondents) and repeat dispensing (72.8% of respondents). Additionally, 23.3% of respondents treated minor ailments at the pharmacy, including bacterial/viral infections, minor injuries, stomach problems, and allergies. The Medicines Use Review service was the only advanced service used in this pharmacy (12.6% of respondents), primarily by men. Younger patients were more familiar with the term of pharmaceutical care (p<0.05; OR=0.33). Conclusions: Only a few pharmaceutical services are utilized by people living in rural areas in the UK, namely prescription dispensing, repeat dispensing, and sale of medications that support self-care for minor ailments. We found an overall poor awareness of the expanded variety of pharmaceutical services encouraged by the community pharmacy contract introduced in the UK in 2005. Therefore, politicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy experts should actively promote these advanced pharmaceutical services in rural areas. <![CDATA[<b>Purchasing Over-the-counter medicines from Australian pharmacy</b>: <b>what do the pharmacy customers value and expect?</b>]]> Background: Over-the-counter medicines (OTC) are widely available and can be purchased without a prescription. Their availability means that a customer may choose to purchase them without the involvement of a pharmacy/pharmacist. It is important to understand customer OTC purchasing perceptions and behaviour from a pharmacy to better understand the needs and opportunities in this space. Objective: This study aimed to examine customers' key expectations and what they value when purchasing OTC and how the effect of health status/stress and perceived risks/benefits of purchasing OTCs from a pharmacy may influence their OTC shopping behaviour. Methods: Customers from two metropolitan pharmacies across two different suburbs in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data collection was conducted over a six-week period. The questionnaire examined demographics, current level of health and stress, as well as a range of questions (seven-point Likert-scale) examining perceived benefits and risks, what they value, trust and expect when purchasing OTC. Results: A total of 86 customers from a broad range of demographics were captured in this study. When asked about their current health state, 41% and 23% respectively indicated that they were stressed and tense when they arrived at the pharmacy but many were feeling well (38%). Most customers strongly agreed/agreed that trust in the advice from a pharmacy (96%), trust in the products (73%), and the altruistic approach of a pharmacy (95%) were critical to them. Further, 82% and 78% respectively disagreed that time pressures or costs were concerns, despite many feeling tense and stressed when they came in. When asked where they intend to buy their future OTC, 89% indicated pharmacy instead of a supermarket. Conclusions: High levels of trust, confidence and sense of altruism and care were key factors for customers buying OTC from a pharmacy, regardless of time pressures, costs or existing levels of stress and health. <![CDATA[<b>A pharmacy-based medication reconciliation and review program in hemodialysis patients</b>: <b>a prospective study</b>]]> Background: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are on multiple medications, see many prescribers and have many hospitalizations which put them at risk for medication record discrepancies and medication related problems (MRP). Being able to effectively identify and reconcile these medication issues is crucial in reducing hospitalizations, morbidities, and mortalities. The care of the hemodialysis patients can be enhanced by incorporating a pharmacist into the interprofessional team. There is little data in the literature on medication record discrepancies and MRP's in dialysis patients. Objective: The objectives of this research were to determine the types of medication discrepancies and MRPs in dialysis patients and if recommendations for changes based on these findings were accepted by providers. Methods: Patients were asked to bring medications to the dialysis unit for review. Discrepancy and MRP recommendations were communicated to the unit staff via written progress notes. A follow-up was performed an average of 33 days later to determine if the recommendations were accepted. Results: Overall, in 93 unique patients, 376 discrepancies (3.1 per patient) and 64 MRPs (0.5 per patient) were identified. The most common type of discrepancy and MRP was drug omission and indication without drug, respectively. Of the total 440 interventions, 77% were ultimately accepted. Discrepancies were more likely to be accepted as compared to MRPs (85% vs. 27%, respectively). Conclusion: Medication record discrepancies and MRPs are common in dialysis patients. Recommendations related to discrepancies were more likely to be accepted by the providers as compared to MRPs. Medication records became inaccurate within 12 months. A pharmacy-based medication reconciliation and review program may have an important impact on the care of hemodialysis patients. <![CDATA[<b>Evaluation of pharmaceutical concerns in Germany</b>: <b>frequency and potential reasons</b>]]> Background: Generic substitution can have unintended consequences. In Germany, brand name to generic or generic to generic switching is mainly driven by rebate contracts. Frequent switching may raise concerns about bio- and therapeutic equivalence. Expected patient confusion may result in compromised medication adherence or new onset of other drug-related problems. Since 2008, pharmacists are allowed to deviate from rebate contracts by denying substitution due to pharmaceutical concerns on an individual basis. Objectives: To explore the frequency of documented pharmaceutical concerns in Germany between July 2011 and December 2013 and to identify the medicines most frequently related to pharmaceutical concerns in 2013. Methods: We analyzed documented pharmaceutical concerns in all prescribed drugs at the expense of any statutory health insurance company requiring pharmacies' generic substitution according to rebate contracts. Results: Since July 2011, the frequency of documented pharmaceutical concerns in relation to prescribed drug products with rebate contracts requiring substitution increased consistently and doubled between July 2011 and July 2013. Overall in 2013, the trend of the two previous years continued and reached approximately 1.5%. The most affected drugs/drug classes were thyroid hormones (in particular combinations with iodide; 15.9%) followed by ondansetron (12.5%), and levothyroxine (11.3%). For all drugs/drug classes under investigation, product-, patient- or disease-related aspects could be identified which are potential reasons to deny substitution and to document pharmaceutical concerns. Conclusions: Although there is no electronic recording of the specific reasons for pharmaceutical concerns in claims data, our analyses support the assumption that pharmacists make use of this instrument based on individual clinical decisions and as required by contract. Pharmaceutical concerns are, therefore, an important instrument for pharmacies to refuse generic substitution. They are considered to prevent compromised medication safety and to assure pharmacotherapy effectiveness in a generic substitution environment driven by low drug prizes above all. <![CDATA[<b>Pharmacists' perceptions of advancing public health priorities through medication therapy management</b>]]> Background: Public health priorities can be addressed by pharmacists through channels such as medication therapy management (MTM) to optimize patient and population outcomes. However, no studies have specifically assessed pharmacists' perceptions of addressing public health priorities through MTM. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess pharmacists' opinions regarding the feasibility and appropriateness of addressing seven areas of public health priority through MTM services to impact public health in direct patient care settings. Methods: An anonymous 37-question electronic survey was conducted to evaluate Ohio pharmacists' opinions of advancing seven public health priorities identified from Healthy People 2020 (family planning, preconception care, smoking cessation, immunizations, nutrition/biometric wellness assessments, point-of-care testing, fall prevention) through MTM activities; to identify potential barriers; and to collect demographic information. The cross-sectional survey was sent to a random sample of 500 pharmacists registered with the Ohio State Board of Pharmacy. Results: Seventy-six pharmacists responded to the survey, resulting in a 16% response rate. On average, it took respondents 5-10 minutes to complete the survey. The majority of respondents thought that each of the seven public health priorities were "important" or "very important" to patient health; the most commonly identified areas included smoking cessation, immunizations, and fall prevention (97.5%). When asked to indicate which of the seven areas they thought they could potentially have a role to provide services through MTM, on average pharmacists picked 4 of the priority areas. Only 6.6% indicated there was no role for pharmacists to provide MTM services for any of the listed categories. Staffing, time, and reimbursement represented the most commonly perceived barriers for pharmacists in providing MTM services. Fifty-seven percent indicated an interest in learning more about MTM, with 98% of responders selecting continuing education as the preferred source. Conclusion: The majority of pharmacists indicated they could make an impact on public health priorities through MTM services. <![CDATA[<b>Chronic disease, medications and lifestyle</b>: <b>perceptions from a regional Victorian Aboriginal community</b>]]> Background: Poor medication management may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of Aboriginal people in Australia. Yet while there is extensive literature about the perceptions of healthcare providers on this issue, there is limited information on the perceptions of Aboriginal people themselves. Objectives: To investigate the perceptions of a group of Aboriginal people attending a Victorian regional Aboriginal Health Service (AHS) with diagnosed medical conditions requiring medications, of their lifestyle, disease management and medication usage. Methods: Data was collected through one to one in depth interviews using a semi-structured 'yarning' process. Twenty patients were invited to participate in the study and were interviewed by Aboriginal Health Workers in a culturally appropriate manner. The interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Results: Our results show that the majority of participants perceived that changes in lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise, and smoking cessation would help improve their health. Most patients reported having been counselled on their medicines, and while the majority reported adherence and acknowledgement of the efficacy of their medicines, there was a lack of clarity regarding long term maintenance on regimens. Finally, while the majority reported taking over the counter products, some did not see the need to inform their doctor about this, or chose not to. Conclusion: Chronic illness was perceived as common in families and community. Patients relied mostly on their health care professionals as sources for their drug information. Patients may have benefited from further counselling in the area of complementary and other over the counter medicines, as well as on the necessity of maintenance of regimes for chronic disease management. Finally, lifestyle changes such as dietary improvements and smoking cessation were identified as areas that may assist in improving health outcomes. <![CDATA[<b>Non-prescription dispensing of emergency oral contraceptives</b>: <b>recommendations from the German Federal Chamber of Pharmacists [Bundesapothekerkammer]</b>]]> Background: Emergency hormonal contraceptives (EHC) are contraceptives used to prevent unintended pregnancy following unprotected sexual intercourse (USI) or contraceptive failure. The EHCs available without a prescription include medicines containing levonorgestrel (LNG) in more than 80 countries and, recently, based on an EU-switch ellaOne®, which contains ulipristal acetate (UPA). EHCs work by stopping or delaying ovulation. Those containing LNG can be used up to 72 hours after USI or contraceptive failure, while UPA can be used up to 120 hours. In the context of the UPA implementation process, Germany switched LNG to non-prescription status as well. Objectives: To develop recommendations, a protocol, and a continuing education program for pharmacists to assure quality when giving advice and dispensing EHCs in community pharmacies without a medical prescription. Methods: The recommendations were developed by an iterative process of drafting, recognizing, and discussing comments and proposals for amendments as well a seeking agreement with a number of stakeholders such as the Federal Ministry of Health (BMG), Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM), Federal Chamber of Physicians (BÄK), Drug Commission of German Physicians (AkdÄ), professional organizations/associations of gynaecologists, pharmaceutical OTC-industry as well as government-controlled, private, and church-based organizations and centres providing advice on sex education and family planning. Results: The recommendations were eventually endorsed by the BMG in consultation with the BfArM. Conclusions: The recommendations were made public, published in the professional journal and used in an uncounted number of continuing education programs based on the curriculum and provided by the State Chambers of Pharmacists.