Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Pharmacy Practice (Granada)]]> vol. 15 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Cross-cultural adaptation and validation to Brazil of the scale of attitudes toward physician-pharmacists collaboration]]> Abstract Background: Despite the increasing complexity of medication therapies and the expansion of pharmaceutical clinical services to optimize patient care working in collaboration with physicians. In this sense, interdisciplinary education has been encouraged. However, no instrument is available to measure attitudes toward collaborative relationships. Objective: To translate, cross-cultural adaptation and validation an instrument to measure collaboration attitudes toward students of medicine/pharmacy and physicians/pharmacists. Methods: The process of cross-cultural adaptation was carried out using international recommendations and was performed from January 2014 to April 2015. The instrument under consideration was translated and re-translated. A panel of experts compared the generated documents and the translation was evaluated for 20 undergraduate students of Pharmacy, 20 undergraduate students of Medicine and professionals (20 pharmacists and 20 physicians). Results: The process of cross-cultural translation and validation result in the Portuguese version. Modifications to the grammatical structures were made in order to establish a cross-cultural similarity between the English and Portuguese versions. Regarding the evaluation of the expert panel, six questions required modifications. Conclusions: Psychometric evaluation demonstrated and confirmed the validity of the Brazilian-Portuguese version to assess collaborative attitudes among pharmacists and physicians. Moreover, the scale can be used to evaluate undergraduates and postgraduates and foster the development of teaching methods that promote comprehensive attitudes in patient care. <![CDATA[Vancomycin use, dosing and serum trough concentrations in the pediatric population: a retrospective institutional review]]> Abstract Background: Vancomycin is used primarily for Gram-positive infections. Recommended dosage regimens and targeted therapeutic levels vary between institutions. Objectives: This study aims to describe therapeutic levels according to initial vancomycin doses and patient’s age. A secondary objective was to evaluate appropriateness of vancomycin use in our hospital. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted at the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario. Patients included in this study were classified by age (neonates, infants, children and adolescents) and categorized into those who received vancomycin ≤5 and &gt;5 days. Initial vancomycin dosing regimens and corresponding initial trough levels obtained were evaluated. Initial trough levels drawn in relation to the third, fourth, or fifth doses corresponding to the first course of therapy were analyzed. Acceptable trough levels ranged from 5-20 mg/L. Results: One-hundred-and-sixty-four patients who received intravenous vancomycin in 2013 were included. Of the 229 courses of vancomycin, 190 (83%) were used 5 days or less (mean 4.9 days). Sixteen infants (88.9%) and 21 adolescents (100%), who received vancomycin empiric dosing of 60 mg/kg/day, had initial trough levels &gt;5mg/L. However, in the children’s group 20 (37.7%) did not reach levels &gt;5 mg/L. None of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were &gt;1mg/L for the four patients who had infections due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains. Conclusions: In our institution, initial empiric vancomycin dosing of 60 mg/kg/day resulted in levels ≥5mg/L in most infants and adolescents. It remains unclear why some children aged 1-12 years did not achieve these levels. <![CDATA[Community pharmacy in Lebanon: A societal perspective]]> Abstract Objective: To assess patients’ attitudes towards the community pharmacist’s role and determine their negative and positive reactions towards community pharmacists in Lebanon. Methods: A cross-sectional study, conducted between January and April 2016, was designed to assess the general public satisfaction with the services provided by the community pharmacies. It was carried out, using a proportionate random sampling of Lebanese community pharmacies from each district. Two sided statistical tests were used to compare between group percentages, Wilcoxon test for quantitative variables with non-homogeneous variances or non-normal distribution, and Student’s t-test for quantitative variables of normal distribution and homogeneous variances. The ANOVA test was used to compare between three groups or more, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to correlate between quantitative variables. Results: a total of 565 participants completely answered the survey questions with a response rate of 94%. The bivariate analysis showed that the patient perception index was positively and significantly correlated with the patient level of expectation index, the overall pharmacy experience and the patient’s reason for visiting the pharmacy (p&lt;0.001 for all 3 variables) but was negatively correlated with the barriers for asking questions significantly (p=0.032). On the other hand, this perception index was significantly and positively associated with the number of pharmacy visits, the age categories, the level of education and the family monthly income (p&lt;0.05 for all variables). Conclusion: Public perception and attitude toward community pharmacist in Lebanon is poor despite highly qualified pharmacists. Aspects of pharmacy services most relevant to patients were respect, empathy, a friendly staff, listening carefully, giving quality time, responding quickly to their needs and respecting their privacy. The ministry of Health in Lebanon, along with the Lebanese Order of Pharmacists should educate the pharmacist about working on the different issues patients are complaining about in order to play a more important role in the society and become the number one trusted health care professional. <![CDATA[Impact of a pharmacy technician-centered medication reconciliation program on medication discrepancies and implementation of recommendations]]> Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a pharmacy-technician centered medication reconciliation (PTMR) program by identifying and quantifying medication discrepancies and outcomes of pharmacist medication reconciliation recommendations. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on two-hundred patients admitted to the internal medicine teaching services at Cooper University Hospital in Camden, NJ. Patients were selected using a stratified systematic sample approach and were included if they received a pharmacy technician medication history and a pharmacist medication reconciliation at any point during their hospital admission. Pharmacist identified medication discrepancies were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses. Potential risk factors were identified using multivariate analyses, such as logistic regression and CART. The priority level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Three-hundred and sixty-five medication discrepancies were identified out of the 200 included patients. The four most common discrepancies were omission (64.7%), non-formulary omission (16.2%), dose discrepancy (10.1%), and frequency discrepancy (4.1%). Twenty-two percent of pharmacist recommendations were implemented by the prescriber within 72 hours. Conclusion: A PTMR program with dedicated pharmacy technicians and pharmacists identifies many medication discrepancies at admission and provides opportunities for pharmacist reconciliation recommendations. <![CDATA[Provider and patient perception of psychiatry patient health literacy]]> Abstract Background: Inadequate health literacy in adults is a nationwide issue that is associated with worse health outcomes. There is a paucity of literacy regarding rates of inadequate health literacy in psychiatric populations. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify an existing tool that would easily identify patients who had inadequate health literacy, so that a targeted intervention could be performed. Secondarily we attempted to compare rates of inadequate health literacy with providers’ perception of patients’ health literacy. Methods: We assessed health literacy in a psychiatric population by administering the Brief Health Literacy Survey (BHLS). Additionally, all psychiatry residents, psychiatrists, nurse practitioners, pharmacists, and social workers were surveyed to assess their perception of patient health literacy. Differences between patient health literacy and provider expectations of patient health literacy were compared. Results: Inadequate health literacy was identified in 31 out of 61 patients (50.8%) using 2 questions from the BHLS. Only 9 (29%) of patients who were identified as having inadequate health literacy were identified by both BHLS questions. In contrast, almost 100% of providers identified their patients, in general, as having inadequate health literacy. Conclusions: These results identify a higher rate of health literacy in a psychiatric inpatient population than in the general population. However, providers at this institution likely over-identify health literacy. This highlights the need for a health literacy tool that can easily target patients with inadequate health literacy for an intervention. <![CDATA[A community pharmacy-based cardiovascular risk screening service implemented in Iran]]> Abstract Background: Cardiovascular disease is a major health concern around the world. Objective: To assess the outcomes and feasibility of a pharmacy-based cardiovascular screening in an urban referral community pharmacy in Iran. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in a referral community pharmacy. Subjects aged between 30-75 years without previous diagnose of cardiovascular disease or diabetes were screened. Measurement of all major cardiovascular risk factors, exercise habits, medical conditions, medications, and family history were investigated. Framingham risk score was calculated and high risk individuals were given a clinical summary sheet signed by a clinical pharmacist and were encouraged to follow up with their physician. Subjects were contacted one month after the recruitment period and their adherence to the follow up recommendation was recorded. Results: Data from 287 participants were analyzed and 146 were referred due to at least one abnormal laboratory test. The results showed 26 patients with cardiovascular disease risk greater than 20%, 32 high systolic blood pressure, 22 high diastolic blood pressures, 50 high total cholesterol levels, 108 low HDL-C levels, and 22 abnormal blood glucose levels. Approximately half of the individuals who received a follow up recommendation had made an appointment with their physician. Overall, 15.9% of the individuals received medications and 15.9% received appropriate advice for risk factor modification. Moreover, 7.5% were under evaluation by a physician. Conclusion: A screening program in a community pharmacy has the potential to identify patients with elevated cardiovascular risk factor. A plan for increased patient adherence to follow up recommendations is required. <![CDATA[Impact of co-investigators on pharmacy resident research publication]]> Abstract Objective: To explore influences of co-investigators on the successful publication of a pharmacy residency project. Methods: We analyzed published and non-published research presented at a regional pharmacy conference. Abstracts were matched 1:1 based on state and abstract year. We assessed university affiliation, number, degree, and H-Index of co-investigators on the abstract. Descriptive and inferential analyses were used to identify variables associated with resident publication. Results: University-affiliated programs (p=0.015), highest H-Index of a non-physician co-investigator (p=0.002), and positive H-Index (≥1) of a non-physician co-investigator (p=0.017) were significant predictors of resident publication on univariate analyses. There were no differences in the number of co-investigators (p=0.051), projects with physician co-investigators (p=1.000), or projects with Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) or Master of Science (MS) co-investigators (p=0.536) between published and non-published projects. Multivariate analysis found that the highest H-index of non-physician co-investigator remained significant as a predictor to resident publication (odds ratio (OR) 1.09, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.01-1.17). Conclusions: The quality of co-investigators, as measured by an increasing H-Index, is associated with the successful publication of residency projects. More emphasis may need to be placed on resident research co-investigator selection and training to prepare pharmacy residents for research and scholarly activity. <![CDATA[Assessment of attitudes and practices of young Malaysian adults about antibiotics use: a cross-sectional study]]> Abstract Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the practices and attitudes of young Malaysian adults towards the use of antibiotics, and to determine the socioeconomic factors associated with the antibiotic use. Methods: A survey was carried in Cheras community by approaching a conveniently selected sample of 480 participants. A pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. Result: Of 480 participants approached, 400 agreed to participate in this study, giving a response rate of 83.3%. The study results showed that 42.75% of the participants exhibited poor attitudes towards antibiotic usage. Chinese race and high income were significantly associated with the positive attitudes towards antibiotic usage. It is shown that the practice of the participants towards antibiotics was relatively poor. The majority of participants agreed that they do not consult a doctor for minor illnesses (64%). The main reason for not consulting a doctor was the high fees of consultation (34.25%) and the inconvenience of visit (29.25%). However, a large proportion of respondents (77.5%) agreed that there is a need to enhance antibiotic education among public. Conclusion: The study results identified some crucial gaps in the attitudes and practices of Cheras community about the use of antibiotics. Thus, improving the public knowledge and changing their attitude towards antibiotic use along with proper interventions to regulate the ease of their availability would play a significant role for the effective use of antibiotics in the community. <![CDATA[Nurses’ attitudes and behaviors on patient medication education]]> Abstract Background: Medication education is vital for positive patient outcomes. However, there is limited information about optimal medication education by nurses during hospitalization and care transitions. Objective: Examine nurses’ attitudes and behaviors regarding the provision of patient medication education. The secondary objectives were to determine if nurses’ medication education attitudes explain their behaviors, describe nurses’ confidence in patient medication knowledge and abilities, and identify challenges to and improvements for medication education. Methods: A cross sectional survey was administered to nurses servicing internal medicine, cardiology, or medical-surgical patients. Results: Twenty-four nurses completed the survey. Greater than 90% of nurses believed it is important to provide information on new medications and medical conditions, utilize resources, assess patient understanding and adherence, and use open ended question. Only 58% believed it is important to provide information on refill medications. Greater than 80% of nurses consistently provided information on new medications, assessed patient understanding, and utilized resources, but one-third or less used open-ended questions or provided information on refill medications. Most nurses spend 5-9 minutes per patient on medication education and their attitudes matched the following medication education behaviors: assessing adherence (0.57; p&lt;0.01), providing information on new medications (0.52; p&lt;0.05), using open-ended questions (0.51; p&lt;0.01), and providing information on refill medications (0.39; p&lt;0.05). Nurses had higher confidence that patients can understand and follow medication instructions, and identify names and purpose of their medications. Nurses had lower confidence that patients know what to expect from their medication or how to manage potential side effects. Communication, including language barriers and difficulty determining the patient’s understanding of the information, was the most common challenge for nurses and they suggested utilization of translator services and patient-friendly drug information resources as a way to improve. Conclusion: Nurses have positive attitudes toward patient medication education. However, their attitudes do not fully explain their behaviors and many nurses are spending limited time with patients on medication education. Enhancements to medication education could include resources on communication and collaboration with pharmacists. <![CDATA[Challenges in the management of community pharmacies in Malaysia]]> Abstract Background: The provision of professional pharmacy services by community pharmacists continues to be limited, particularly in low and middle income countries. It was postulated that multiple management challenges faced by community pharmacists contribute to this situation. Objective: The primary aim of the research was to determine the challenges faced in the management of community pharmacies in Sarawak (the largest state in Malaysia), and practical strategies to cope and overcome the challenges. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were carried out with community pharmacists practising in Sarawak. Purposive and snowball sampling were employed to ensure a diverse group of informants. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, with the resultant data analysed using thematic analysis. Data collection, coding, interpretation were carried out iteratively until theoretical saturation. Results: Twenty respondents from different demographic characteristics were recruited. Six major themes were identified. Management challenges faced by community pharmacists traverse five major domains: market competition, legislative issues, customers’ knowledge and expectations, macroeconomic impacts and operational challenges. Most of these challenges require government intervention to be resolved. In the meantime, improving customer service and expanding the range of professional services were seen as the most viable strategies to cope with existing challenges. The main concern is that current legislative and economic landscape may hinder these strategies. Enactment of dispensing separation and more protective measures against market competition were suggested to alleviate the challenges faced. Conclusion: Numerous management challenges faced by community pharmacists that distract them from delivering professional pharmacy services have been highlighted. Urgent affirmative actions by the government are warranted in supporting community pharmacists to realise and maximise their potentials. <![CDATA[Assessment of the rates and characteristics of the short-term supply of medication (Tider) from an integrated healthcare delivery system in the United States]]> Abstract Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the rate of medication short-term supply dispensings (tider), patient and medication characteristics associated with a tider, and costs for tider dispensings in an integrated healthcare delivery system in Colorado, United States. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted in an integrated healthcare delivery system’s outpatient clinics. All patients who had a prescription dispensed for a study medication at any of the system’s 28 outpatient pharmacies during the first quarter of 2016 were included. A tider was identified as a 3-day supply of a prescription medication that was dispensed at no charge to a patient. The quarterly tider rate and the per member per month (PMPM) cost of tiders were estimated. Patient and medication characteristics associated with a tider were assessed. Results: A total of 444,225 study medications were dispensed for 135,907 patients during the study period. There were 3,430 (0.77%, 95%CI 0.75%:0.80%) medications dispensed as a tider. The PMPM cost of tider medications and their dispensing fees was USD 0.03. There were 1,092 (0.8%) and 134,815 (99.2%) patients who did and did not, respectively, have at least one tider dispensed during the study period. Patient characteristics strongly associated with having had a tider dispensed included being older, male, and a Medicare beneficiary. Cardiovascular and neuromuscular medications had the highest rates of tider dispensing. Conclusions: The rate of tider dispensing was relatively low; however, approximately one out of 125 patients had at least one tider. Patients who had a tider were more likely to be older, female, a Medicare beneficiary, and having had a previous tider dispensing and a higher burden of chronic disease. The tider medication was more likely to be a cardiovascular or neuromuscular medication class and more likely to be dispensed on a weekend. The total cost of dispensing a tider appears reasonable since the benefits of providing patients with needed medications likely outweigh the cost. Future studies should be performed to assess the impact of tider dispensing on health outcomes. <![CDATA[Feasibility of clinical pharmacist-led CYP2C19 genotyping for patients receiving non-emergent cardiac catheterization in an integrated health system]]> Abstract Objective: To assess the feasibility of clinical pharmacist-led CYP2C19 genotype-guided P2Y12 inhibitor antiplatelet drug therapy recommendations to cardiologists in an outpatient cardiology practice. Methods: This was a prospective, open-labeled, single-arm study conducted in an integrated healthcare delivery system between March 1, 2013 and January 23, 2014. Patients requiring non-emergent cardiac catheterization were included. A clinical pharmacist provided interpretation and recommendations from genotyping results. The feasibility of implementing CYP2C19 genotype-guided antiplatelet therapy was assessed by the: 1) percentage of patients approached who consented to CYP2C19 genotyping, 2) percentage of patients with CYP2C19 genotyping results available prior to cardiac catheterization, and 3) percentage of clinical pharmacist CYP2C19 genotype-based antiplatelet recommendations accepted by cardiologists. Results: Of the 43 patients identified for potential recruitment, 22 of these were eligible for study enrollment and 6 (27%) patients consented and received CYP2C19 genotyping. All patients had genotyping results available prior to catheterization and all clinical pharmacists’ antiplatelet therapy recommendations were accepted by the patients’ cardiologists. Three patients had the CYP2C19 wild-type (*1/*1) genotype and the clinical pharmacist recommended clopidogrel therapy. CYP2C19 variant genotypes (i.e., *1/*2, *1/*17, and *2/*17) were found in the other three patients; alternative antiplatelet therapy was recommended for the patient with the *1/*2 genotype, while clopidogrel was recommended for those with *1/*17 and *2/*17 genotypes. Conclusion: A relatively small proportion of patients undergoing non-emergent cardiac catheterization consented to pharmacogenetic testing; however, their cardiologists were receptive to clinical pharmacists conducting such testing and providing corresponding pharmacotherapy recommendations. Future studies should identify patient barriers to pharmacogenetic testing. <![CDATA[Effects of staff education and standardizing dosing and collection times on vancomycin trough appropriateness in ward patients]]> Abstract Background: Many institutions have guidelines for initiation and monitoring, but not timing, of vancomycin. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate vancomycin trough collection appropriateness before and after an initiative to change the dosing and trough collection times in ward patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of ward patients from May 2014-16 who received scheduled intravenous vancomycin was performed. Nurse managers and pharmacists provided staff education. Differences between pre- and post-intervention groups were compared using student’s t-test for continuous data and chi-square test for categorical data. Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between the pre-intervention (n=124) and post-intervention (n=122) groups except for weight-based maintenance dose (15.3 mg/kg vs. 16.5 mg/kg, p=0.03) and percentage of troughs collected with morning labs (14% vs. 87%, p&lt;0.001). Patients in the pre- and post-intervention groups received a similar frequency of loading doses (14.5% vs. 16%, p=0.68). There was no significant difference in percentage of vancomycin troughs collected appropriately at 30 (40% vs. 42%, p=0.72), 60 (57% vs. 63%, p=0.35), or 75 (60% vs. 68%, p=0.22) minutes from the scheduled time of the next dose. Conclusion: Staff education and standardizing collection of vancomycin troughs with morning blood collections did not affect the percentage of appropriately collected vancomycin troughs. <![CDATA[Models and theories of prescribing decisions: A review and suggested a new model]]> Abstract To date, research on the prescribing decisions of physician lacks sound theoretical foundations. In fact, drug prescribing by doctors is a complex phenomenon influenced by various factors. Most of the existing studies in the area of drug prescription explain the process of decision-making by physicians via the exploratory approach rather than theoretical. Therefore, this review is an attempt to suggest a value conceptual model that explains the theoretical linkages existing between marketing efforts, patient and pharmacist and physician decision to prescribe the drugs. The paper follows an inclusive review approach and applies the previous theoretical models of prescribing behaviour to identify the relational factors. More specifically, the report identifies and uses several valuable perspectives such as the ‘persuasion theory - elaboration likelihood model’, the stimuli–response marketing model’, the ‘agency theory’, the theory of planned behaviour,’ and ‘social power theory,’ in developing an innovative conceptual paradigm. Based on the combination of existing methods and previous models, this paper suggests a new conceptual model of the physician decision-making process. This unique model has the potential for use in further research.