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Archivos Españoles de Urología (Ed. impresa)

versión impresa ISSN 0004-0614

Resumen

MARTINEZ-SALAMANCA, Juan Ignacio et al. Surgical treatment of renal adenocarcinoma with venous thrombus. Arch. Esp. Urol. [online]. 2005, vol.58, n.4, pp.295-304. ISSN 0004-0614.

OBJECTIVES: To analyze therapeutic management and survival of renal adenocarcinoma with tumor venous extension treated by surgery in our experience. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluate a series of 29 cases of renal adenocarcinoma with venous thrombus who underwent radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy from January 1986 to November 2003. Mean age was 63.4 11.9 (29-79) years. 23 patients were males (79%) and 6 (21%) females. 17 (59%) patients had the tumor in the right kidney and 12 (42%) in the left kidney. Tumor thrombus level was: Level I (renal vein-inferior vena cava) 13 (45%), Level II (infrahepatic vena cava) 9 (31%), Level III (retrohepatic vena cava/suprahepatic) 3 (10%), and Level IV (auricula) 4 (14%). 92% of the cases presented perirenal fat involvement. Survival analysis was performed including 24 cases of the 29. We analyzed overall and cancer-specific survival, as well as possible influence of tumor thrombus level, fat involvement, and tumor grade as prognostic factors. RESULTS: Mean tumor size was 8.15 ± 2.25 cm (5- 13). Surgical approach was purely abdominal in 23 cases (79%) and thoraco-phreno-laparotomy in 6 (21%). Hepatic mobilization maneuvers and hepatic pedicle clamping were performed in 5 (17%) patients. Venous clamping was: renal-cava 13 cases (44%), triple clamping 11 (37%) (9 infrahepatic and 2 suprahepatic), and supradiaphragmatic-auricula 5 (17%). Conventional extracorporeal circulation (CEC) with moderate hypothermia (26-28º C) was employed in 4 cases and CEC with heart arrest (4 min) in one. Mean follow-up was 52 months. At the time of review 9 patients were alive,11 had died from tumor and 4 had died from other causes. Mean overall survival was 71 ± 12 months and cancer specific survival 86 ± 14 months. Neither renal fat involvement (p=0,6) nor tumor thrombus level (p = 0.9) were prognostic factors for survival in the univariant analysis, but tumor grade was (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with venous tumor extension without lymph node involvement or metastasis should be treated by radical surgery with complete excision of the tumor thrombus. Tumor grade was a prognostic factor for survival, but venous involvement level and presence of perirenal fat involvement were not. To analyze therapeutic management and survival of renal adenocarcinoma with tumor venous extension treated by surgery in our experience. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluate a series of 29 cases of renal adenocarcinoma with venous thrombus who underwent radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy from January 1986 to November 2003. Mean age was 63.4 11.9 (29-79) years. 23 patients were males (79%) and 6 (21%) females. 17 (59%) patients had the tumor in the right kidney and 12 (42%) in the left kidney. Tumor thrombus level was: Level I (renal vein-inferior vena cava) 13 (45%), Level II (infrahepatic vena cava) 9 (31%), Level III (retrohepatic vena cava/suprahepatic) 3 (10%), and Level IV (auricula) 4 (14%). 92% of the cases presented perirenal fat involvement. Survival analysis was performed including 24 cases of the 29. We analyzed overall and cancer-specific survival, as well as possible influence of tumor thrombus level, fat involvement, and tumor grade as prognostic factors. RESULTS: Mean tumor size was 8.15 ± 2.25 cm (5- 13). Surgical approach was purely abdominal in 23 cases (79%) and thoraco-phreno-laparotomy in 6 (21%). Hepatic mobilization maneuvers and hepatic pedicle clamping were performed in 5 (17%) patients. Venous clamping was: renal-cava 13 cases (44%), triple clamping 11 (37%) (9 infrahepatic and 2 suprahepatic), and supradiaphragmatic-auricula 5 (17%). Conventional extracorporeal circulation (CEC) with moderate hypothermia (26-28º C) was employed in 4 cases and CEC with heart arrest (4 min) in one. Mean follow-up was 52 months. At the time of review 9 patients were alive,11 had died from tumor and 4 had died from other causes. Mean overall survival was 71 ± 12 months and cancer specific survival 86 ± 14 months. Neither renal fat involvement (p=0,6) nor tumor thrombus level (p = 0.9) were prognostic factors for survival in the univariant analysis, but tumor grade was (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with venous tumor extension without lymph node involvement or metastasis should be treated by radical surgery with complete excision of the tumor thrombus. Tumor grade was a prognostic factor for survival, but venous involvement level and presence of perirenal fat involvement were not.

Palabras clave : Renal adenocarcinoma; Venous thrombus; Surgical treatment; Survival.

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