Archivos Españoles de Urología (Ed. impresa)
versión impresa ISSN 0004-0614
ARRABAL MARTIN, Miguel et al. The treatment of bladder lithiasis with laser. Arch. Esp. Urol. [online]. 2008, vol.61, n.9, pp.985-993. ISSN 0004-0614.
Objectives: The use of laser for endoscopic lithotripsy started in 1968 when Mulvaney tried a ruby laser without success; Later on, the CO2 laser and the Nd: YAG were tried. With the pulsed dye and alexandrite lasers energetic performances between 30 and 200 mJ are obtained, their capacity of fragmentation is not universal and is limited to small stones, generally ureteral stones, so that it has not been a therapeutic alternative for bladder lithiasis. The holmium laser generates energy pulses of 400-2500mJ, it is able to fragment every type of stone. The objective of this work is to analyze the results of endoscopic bladder lithotripsy with holmium-YAG laser. Methods: In the period between 2006-2008 we treated 21 cases of bladder lithiasis, with a stone size between 1 and 4 cm in patients from 8-76 years, six women and 15 men, which correspond to: four cases of infantile lithiasis, 3 of uric acid, one case of cystine, seven cases of calcium oxalate and/or phosphate, five cases of bladder lithiasis growing around a double J catheter, and one case of lithiasis within an intravesical ureterocele. Treatment was performed with a 20W Dornier Medilas holmium-YAG equipment, applied using children/adult cystoscopes or 7-8.5 Ch ureteroscopes, both semirigid and flexible. Post operative control included KUB x-ray and ultrasound. We performed a study of lithogenic risk factors and stone fragments analysis. Results: The 21 cases described are all secondary or type II bladder lithiasis. In all cases the absence of residual lithiasis was checked with imaging studies and the lithogenic risk factors were corrected with medical or surgical procedures. Conclusions: We consider that today bladder endoscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser is a therapeutic alternative. Despite there are multiple options for endoscopic treatment, transurethral lithotripsy with holmium laser offers good results with a low complication rate.
Palabras clave : Bladder lithiasis; Endoscopic lithotripsy; Holmium laser; Laser.