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Archivos Españoles de Urología (Ed. impresa)
versión impresa ISSN 0004-0614
GARCIA-ESCUDERO LOPEZ, Ángel; ARRUZA ECHEVARRIA, A.; PADILLA NIEVA, J. y PUIG GIRO, R.. Charles II: from spell to genitourinary pathology. Arch. Esp. Urol. [online]. 2009, vol.62, n.3, pp.179-185. ISSN 0004-0614.
Objectives: We attempt to unravel the complex condition of the last king of the Hapsburg dynasty in Spain, Charles II, called The Bewitched, in whom a genitourinary disorder was preponderant, preventing him from fulfilling one of the objectives of the monarchial institution, engendering a heir, and causing a series of complications that led to his death. Methods: We review the works describing the life of the King, with special emphasis on his bloodline, the doubts about his sex at birth, his pathological processes, the repercussion among European Courts, but above all on his marriages and the inability to engender an heir. We also emphasize the thought of 17th century Spanish society which led to the belief that he was bewitched. The nickname he passed into history with. Result: It was deduced that he could have presented posterior hypospadias which, together with monorchism and atrophic testicle, led to the belief that he presented an intersexual state with ambiguous genitals. The physical phenotype leans more towards true hermaphroditism and above all a XX male, rather than the more often attributed Klinefelter's syndrome. This is probably also associated with a fragile X syndrome. Very possibly congenital monorenal, death was due to chronic kidney failure caused by glomerulopathy or interstitial nephropathy as a consequence of renal lithiasis plus recurrent infections of the urinary tract. Conclusions: As a result of a reiterated endogamic matrimonial policy, the Hapsburg dynasty died out in Spain in 1700, represented by Charles II, a pluripathological king who can only be freed from speculation by chromosomal and genetic studies of his remains buried in El Escorial monastery.
Palabras clave : Charles II; The Bewitched; Intersexual state; Renal failure.