Actas Urológicas Españolas
versión impresa ISSN 0210-4806
DIAZ, J.I.; CORICA, A.; MCKENZIE, R. y SCHELLHAMMER, P.F.. Comparative study of surgical efficacy in open versus laparoscopic prostatectomy: virtual prostate reconstruction and periprostatic tissue quantification. Actas Urol Esp [online]. 2007, vol.31, n.9, pp.1045-1055. ISSN 0210-4806.
Introduction: The introduction of laparoscopic surgery as a procedure to perform radical prostatectomy needs an objective method to evaluate the suitability of this new surgical procedure. The traditional parameters, including the incidence of positive surgical margins, are useful, but not sufficiently objective. Different authors publish different criteria to define positive surgical margins. In addition, there are some technical problems that may ocur during the processing of the surgical specimen by the pathologist, which can give false positive margins. We have used a computer modeling software in connection to scanned images from serial sections of the whole gland, to determine the percentage of extracapsular tissue that surrounds the prostate glands, removed by both, open retropubic and laparoscopic procedures. This percentage can be considered as an objective parameter which can potentially predict the benefit of surgery in predicting cancer control, as well as the clinical success of the surgical procedure. The correlation with the clinical results in the long term, - survival and biochemical recurrence - will be useful to validate as a last resort the clinical utility of this parameter in the coming years. Materials and Methods: We had a total of 32 prostate surgical specimens, 15 from patients who underwent open retropubic prostatectomy and 17 from patients who underwent laparoscopic prostatectomy for this study. After surgery and 24 hours formol fixation, serial cuts were taken at 5 mm thickness intervals to make complete sections ("whole mount") of the prostate. An expert uropathologist reviewed all the surgical sections and drew in each tissue cut the prostatic capsule and tumor contours. The serial images of the whole gland and surrounding prostate tissue were scanned to produce digital images, using a computer software to create a file with capsule information and a file with information on the surrounding fibroadipose tissue (extraprostatic). These procedures allowed the reconstruction of a threedimensional tissue model of the prostatic capsule and the surrounding extraprostatic tissue. Two separate point clouds files were generated, with the purpose of representing capsule and extraprostatic tissue models and software algorithms were used to generate differences in point clouds and thereby quantifying the extracapsular tissue coverage dimension, a parameter that we considered indicative of the adequeacy and feasibility of the surgical procedure. Results: The global percentage of prostate gland surface covered by extracapsular fibroadipose tissue was statistically higher in specimens removed by a laparoscopic procedure when compared to the open retropubic procedure. When a segmental analysis of the gland percentage of coverage was evaluated, it was found this percentage was significantly higher in the apical and inferolateral segments of those glands removed without nerves preservation and in the apical segments of those glands removed with nerves preservation for the laparoscopic prostatectomy. Conclusions: In our series, laparoscopic prostatectomy contributed superior extracapsular tissue coverage than retropubic prostatectomy. Similarly laparoscopic prostatectomy produced a superior tissue coverage in inferolateral and apical regions on those glands removed without nerve preservation and in the apical regions of those glands removed with nerve preservation. Therefore, the surgical suitability of this technique, when compared to the retropubic, seems to be higher.
Palabras clave : Laparoscopic prostatectomy; Retropubic prostatectomy; Extracapsular extension; Whole Mount; 3D reconstruction.