versión impresa ISSN 0210-5691
MESQUIDA, J. et al. Objectives of hemodynamic resuscitation. Med. Intensiva [online]. 2011, vol.35, n.8, pp.499-508. ISSN 0210-5691.
Cardiovascular failure or shock, of any etiology, is characterized by ineffective perfusion of body tissues, inducing derangements in the balance between oxygen delivery and consumption. Impairment in oxygen availability on the cellular level causes a shift to anaerobic metabolism, with an increase in lactate and hydrogen ion production that leads to lactic acidosis. The degree of hyperlactatemia and metabolic acidosis will be directly correlated to the development of organ failure and poor outcome of the individuals. The amount of oxygen available at the tissues will depend fundamentally on an adequate level of perfusion pressure and oxygen delivery. The optimization of these two physiologic parameters can re-establish the balance between oxygen delivery and consumption on the cellular level, thus, restoring the metabolism to its aerobic paths. Monitoring variables such as lactate and oxygen venous saturations (either central or mixed) during the initial resuscitation of shock will be helpful to determine whether tissue hypoxia is still present or not. Recently, some new technologies have been developed in order to evaluate local perfusion and microcirculation, such as gastric tonometry, near-infrared spectroscopy and videomicroscopy. Although monitoring these regional parameters has demonstrated its prognostic value, there is a lack of evidence regarding to its usefulness during the resuscitation process. In conclusion, hemodynamic resuscitation is still based on the rapid achievement of adequate levels of perfusion pressure, and then on the modification of oxygen delivery variables, in order to restore physiologic values of ScvO2/SvO2 and resolve lactic acidosis and/or hyperlactatemia.
Palabras clave : Shock; Hemodynamic monitoring; Oxygen delivery; Tissue hypoxia; Microcirculation.