versión impresa ISSN 0210-5691
Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is the leading nosocomial infection in intensive care. It is associated with increased ICU and hospital stay, an increased use of antibiotics, and greater hospital costs. The recently launched Pneumonia Zero project (NZ) undoubtedly constitutes a challenge for professionals in the ICU, and has been designed to reduce the high incidence rates described. It is necessary to establish the true incidence, and whether the latter is influenced by the diagnostic method employed. The lack of a reference standard for the microbiological diagnosis of VAP has generated controversy over the diagnostic algorithms to be used, with the distinction of two strategies: a noninvasive or clinical strategy based on upper respiratory tract cultures, and an invasive method based on the use of quantitative cultures of samples from the lower respiratory tract obtained by bronchoscopic techniques. Despite the recommendations of scientific societies, which do not justify the use of qualitative tracheal aspirates in the microbiological diagnosis of VAP, this method is still routinely used. This study underscores the need to stop using qualitative tracheal aspirates as a routine diagnostic method for VAP, recommending the use of bronchoscopic techniques or quantitative tracheal aspirates.
Palabras clave : Ventilator associated pneumonia; Qualitative tracheal aspirate; Zero Pneumonia.