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Nefrología (Madrid)

versión impresa ISSN 0211-6995

Resumen

ANTON-PEREZ, Gloria; PEREZ-BORGES, Patricia; ALONSO-ALMAN, Francisco  y  VEGA-DIAZ, Nicanor. Vascular accesses in haemodialysis: a challenge to be met. Nefrología (Madr.) [online]. 2012, vol.32, n.1, pp.103-107. ISSN 0211-6995.

Background: Chronic kidney disease is a leading problem in public health due to its high incidence, prevalence and high morbidity and mortality, especially for those who require renal replacement therapy (RRT). As has already been described by other authors, the vascular access is one of the factors determining morbidity and mortality of patients in haemodialysis as well as their complications, which incur a high cost. Objectives: To know the real situation of our clinical practice, compare it with data from other studies, and to measure the degree of compliance by these patients with the recommendations of haemodialysis (HD) Clinical Practice Guidelines regarding vascular access . Also, to assess urvival according to the type of vascular access used, adjusting for comorbidity factors. Patients and Methods: We studied the vascular access of our prevalent patients on aemodialysis by October 2009 (n=299, 62% men). Of these, 64% underwent HD through an autologous arteriovenous fistula (AVF), 3% were carrying synthetic grafts, and 33% had a central venous catheter (CVC). These percentages do not comply with the recommendations of the S.E.N. and KDOQI clinical guidelines. In order to know the real situation of our clinical practice, we compared our data with other studies, and measured the degree of compliance with the recommendations of the guidelines. The incident patients on HD were studied from January 2004 to October 2009 (n=422). We analysed basal nephropathy, associated diseases, and the type of vascular access at the start of HD. Results: A total of 30% had an AVF, 1% had synthetic grafts, and 69% had CVC. The calculated relative risk (RR) of death associated with the use of CVC at the start of HD was 3.68 (95% CI: 2.93-6.35) adjusted for other factors of comorbidity (age, diabetes mellitus, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease). Conclusions: The high mortality associated at the beginning of HD with CVC (RR: 3.68), independently of other factors, make the decrease in the use of this vascular access an objective of first order. Presently, we have not been able to meet the objectives from the different Clinical Guidelines with respect to the prevalence and incidence of the vascular accesses for HD.

Palabras clave : Central venous catheter; Arteriovenous fistula; Haemodialysis; Vascular access.

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