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Nefrología (Madrid)

versión On-line ISSN 1989-2284versión impresa ISSN 0211-6995

Resumen

CIGARRAN GULDRIS, Secundino; GONZALEZ PARRA, Emilio  y  CASES AMENOS, Aleix. Gut microbiota in chronic kidney disease. Nefrología (Madr.) [online]. 2017, vol.37, n.1, pp.9-19. ISSN 1989-2284.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nefro.2016.05.008.

The intestinal microflora maintains a symbiotic relationship with the host under normal conditions, but its imbalance has recently been associated with several diseases.

In chronic kidney disease (CKD), dysbiotic intestinal microflora has been reported with an increase in pathogenic flora compared to symbiotic flora. An enhanced permeability of the intestinal barrier, allowing the passage of endotoxins and other bacterial products to the blood, has also been shown in CKD. By fermenting undigested products that reach the colon, the intestinal microflora produce indoles, phenols and amines, among others, that are absorbed by the host, accumulate in CKD and have harmful effects on the body. These gut-derived uraemic toxins and the increased permeability of the intestinal barrier in CKD have been associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress and have been involved in various CKD-related complications, including cardiovascular disease, anaemia, mineral metabolism disorders or the progression of CKD. The use of prebiotics, probiotics or synbiotics, among other approaches, could improve the dysbiosis and/or the increased permeability of the intestinal barrier in CKD.

This article describes the situation of the intestinal microflora in CKD, the alteration of the intestinal barrier and its clinical consequences, the harmful effects of intestinal flora-derived uraemic toxins, and possible therapeutic options to improve this dysbiosis and reduce CKD-related complications.

Palabras clave : Chronic kidney disease; Gut microbiota; Dysbiosis; Uraemic toxins; Inflammation.

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