versión impresa ISSN 0212-1611
PENALVA, A. et al. Oral nutritional supplementation in hematologic patients. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2009, vol.24, n.1, pp.10-16. ISSN 0212-1611.
Rationale: Hematological patients often present anorexia which along with other secondary effects from the chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy treatments compromise their nutritional status. Oral supplementation can aid to fulfill the energy and protein requirements of these patients. Nevertheless, the use of commercial nutritional supplements normally available, is limited by its poor intake. Objective: To evaluate the degree of fulfillment of the prescribed supplements and fulfillment of energy requirements, as well as the development of nutritional status in hematological patients hospitalized for treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods: Prospective, randomized and open study of inpatients at the hematological ward. Patients were randomized sequentially and they were assigned into 3 different nutritional interventions providing: Group 1 (G1), a flavored supplement; Group 2 (G2): a non flavored (neutral) supplement and Group 3 (G3): "kitchen" foods as supplements. Need and amount of nutritional supplements were provided according to the oral intake previously analyzed. Nutritional assessment (at admission and discharge) was based in the Subjective Global Assessment test (SGA), Risk Nutritional Index (RNI) and percentage of lost weight. Both fulfillment of supplement intake and achievement of energetic requirements were analyzed. Results: 125 patients of 51.3 ± 16.8 years; 45% men and 55% women. Diagnosis: 54% lymphoma, 33% leukemia, 8% myeloma and others 4%. Length of stay (LOS): 7.0 ± 3.6 d. The nutritional assessment done by SGA showed significant negative changes in G2 and G3 (G1: 30% developed malnutrition and 28% improved their nutritional status, p = NS; G2: 50% developed malnutrition against 7% whom improved their nutritional status, p = 0.002; y G3: 37% developed malnutrition against 21% whom improved their nutritional status, p = 0.02). According to RNI, patients evolved negatively from their nutritional state but no significant differences were found within groups (G1, from 81% of malnutrition to 90%; G2, from 77% to 91%, and G3 from 71% to 85%). Globally, during hospitalization patients lost weight significantly (2.3 ± 2.2 kg, p < 0.001), but within groups weight loss differences were not significant (G1, 1.16 kg; G2, 1.75 kg, y G3, 1.17 kg). All three groups required intake of supplements (G1, 47%; G2, 30%, and G3, 47%). The percentage of fulfillment of oral intake was similar in both commercial supplemented groups (G1, 47% and G2, 58%) although it was significantly greater in those receiving kitchen supplements (G3, 100%, p < 0.001). The fulfillment of energy requirements at admission and discharge did not showed significant changes (G1, from 53% to 46%; G2, from 67% to 52% and G3 from 49% to 55%). Conclusion: Our results suggest that hematological patients admitted to hospital for treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy loose weight during their hospitalization and present intakes below their energy requirements so they need supplementation. Kitchen supplements are better accepted than commercial ones although that does not result in an increased total energy intake. The group which received commercial flavored supplements was the only one which did not showed negative significant changes in the nutritional status evaluated by SGA.
Palabras clave : Cancer; Supplementation achievement; Energy requirements achievement; Nutritional status.