versión impresa ISSN 0212-1611
SHARMA, P.; KAUR, J. y SANYAL, S. N.. Effect of etoricoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitor on aberrant crypt formation and apoptosis in 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis in rat model. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2010, vol.25, n.1, pp.39-48. ISSN 0212-1611.
Etoricoxib, a second generation selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor had been studied for the chemopreventive response at its therapeutic anti-inflammatory dose in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon carcinogenesis in rat model. Eight to ten weeks old male rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were divided into four groups. While group 1 served as control and received the vehicle of the drugs, group 2 and 3 were administered freshly prepared DMH in 1mM EDTA-saline (pH 7.0) (30 mg/kg body wt/week, subcutaneously). Group 3 was also given a daily treatment of etoricoxib (0.6 mg/kg body wt orally) while the group 4 received the same amount of etoricoxib only, prepared in 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose. Animals were sacrificed at the end of 6 weeks, body weight recorded and the colons were subjected to macroscopic and histopathological studies. The maximum number of raised mucosal lesions called the multiple plaque lesions (MPL) were found in the DMH group which significantly reverted back in the DMH + etoricoxib group, while very few MPLs were recorded in the control and etoricoxib only group. Similarly, the number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), the point of future carcinogenic growth, was recorded more in the DMH group and significantly less in the DMH + etoricoxib group. The histopathological analysis showed the presence of severe hyperplasia, occasional dysplasia and aggregates of lymphoid cells in the localized regions. Etoricoxib group showed near normal histological features with the crypt architecture and the surrounding stromal tissue remaining intact. To ascertain the molecular mechanism of such anti-carcinogenic features the colonocytes were isolated and studied in primary culture for the evidence of apoptosis by fluorescent staining and genotoxic changes by single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) which shows that the DMH treated animals produced much less apoptotic nuclei but more comet producing cell, while these features were reverted back with the etoricoxib treatment. The cytoplasmic expression of COX-2 protein was studied in paraffin sections of the colon by immunohistochemistry with COX-2 specific antibody which showed a very high presence of this inducible enzyme with the DMH group while in all other groups of animals it was not visible or weekly expressed. The anti-inflammatory effect of the drug, etoricoxib was also validated by a carrageenan-induced inflammation in rat model which showed an extremely high anti-inflammatory response within the dose range used in the present study. Also the growth profile of all the animals remained the same throughout the six week period of the investigation as there was no change in the body weight. It appears that apoptosis remains the dominant anti-proliferative end effect of this drug, mediated by an inhibition of the proinflammatory COX-2 isoform although further molecular probings are needed to arrive at a conclusive agreement in favor of the chemoprotective use of such drugs in colon cancers.
Palabras clave : Etoricoxib; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; Colon cancer; Aberrant crypt foci; COX-2 expression; Apoptosis.