versión impresa ISSN 0212-1611
CAMINA MARTIN, M.ª A. et al. Presence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition in institutionalized elderly with dementia according to the type and deterioration stage. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2012, vol.27, n.2, pp.434-440. ISSN 0212-1611.
Objective: To determine if there exist differences in the nutritional status of patients with dementia according to the type and severity of the disease. Method: In this cross-sectional study we carried out an assessment of the nutritional status (anthropometrical assessment, Mini Nutritional Assessment, Chang´s protocol) in 83 institutionalized elderly diagnosed with dementia at evolutionary states of 5, 6, and 7 of GDS (Global Deterioration Scale) and FAST (Functional Assessment Stating). The results were analyzed by the Chi-squared, ANOVA, or Kruskal-Wallis tests, the Scheffé´s posteriori contrasts, and the linear trend test. Significance was considered at p < 0.05. Results: The mean age of the patients was 81.22 years. The BMI revealed that 21% of the sample were at risk for malnourishment and 14.5% were malnourished. However, by using the MNA, 56.6% of the patients were at risk for malnourishment and 41% were malnourished. According to the Chang's method, the percentage of malnourished patients was increased to 75.9%. None of these variables showed an association with the type of dementia. A significant association was observed between the evolutionary state of dementia and the BMI (p = 0.004), MNA (p = 0.002 and p = 0.006 for the score and the category, respectively), the muscle circumference of the arm (p = 0.043) and the calf circumference (p = 0.043) but not with the percentage of fat mass nor the nutritional diagnosis established by the Chang´s method (degree and type of MN). The linear trend test confirmed that both the MNA and BMI scores and the muscle circumference of the arm and the calf circumference were lower in the more severe dementia states. Conclusion: Irrespective of the type of dementia, the presence of malnourishment in institutionalized elderly increases in parallel to the evolutionary degree of the dementia.
Palabras clave : Nutritional Assessment; Malnutrition; Elderly; Dementia; Mini Nutritional Assessment.