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Nutrición Hospitalaria

versión On-line ISSN 1699-5198versión impresa ISSN 0212-1611

Resumen

PAVON MORENO, M. Á.; GONZALEZ ALONSO, I.; MARTIN DE SANTOS, R.  y  GARCIA LACARRA, T.. The importance of genus Alternaria in mycotoxins production and human diseases. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2012, vol.27, n.6, pp.1772-1781. ISSN 1699-5198.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2012.27.6.6017.

Alternaría is a cosmopolitan fungal genus that includes saprophytic, endophytic and pathogenic species, widely distributed in soil and organic matter in decomposition. Plant pathogenic species affect cereals, vegetables and fruit crops in the field and during storage. Alternaría spp. contamination is responsible for some of the world's most devastating plant diseases, causing serious reduction of crop yields and considerable economic losses. Alternaría species produce more than 70 secondary metabolites which are toxic to plants, and some of these phytotoxins have been chemically characterised and reported to act as mycotoxins to humans and animals. Exposure to Alternaría spp. toxins has been linked to a variety of adverse effects on human and animal health, including genotoxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic effects. Alternaría spp. mycotoxins have been isolated from fruits (apple, pear, melon, apricot, grapes, raisins, strawberry, olive, citrus fruits and dried figs), vegetables (tomato, pepper and carrot) and tubers (potato), as well as from several processed foodstuffs manufactured with damaged raw materials (juices, preserves, sauces, etc.). Moreover, Alternaría spp. are frequently associated with allergic reactions in sensitized individuals.

Palabras clave : Mycotoxins; Alternaría spp; Toxicity; Food; Human disease.

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