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Nutrición Hospitalaria

versión On-line ISSN 1699-5198versión impresa ISSN 0212-1611

Resumen

MONTERO ALONSO, Miguel A.  y  GONZALEZ-JIMENEZ, Emilio. Evaluation of the nutritional status, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk in a population of adolescents in the cities of Granada and Almeria (Spain). Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2013, vol.28, n.3, pp.802-806. ISSN 1699-5198.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2013.28.3.6437.

Objectives: The first objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status and insulin resistance index in a population of adolescents as calculated by Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA). The second objective was to establish correlations between the nutritional status of the subjects, the possible existence of insulin resistance, and the risk of high blood pressure. Population sample and methodology: The sample was composed of 1001 adolescents, 9-17 years of age, from 18 schools in the provinces of Granada and Almeria. Their nutritional status was determined by means of anthropometric evaluation. For the metabolic study, a blood sample was collected from each subject by venipuncture. An analysis was performed of the basal glucose and insulin levels as well as the Homeostatic Model Assessment- Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index. Also evaluated were the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), serum lipoprotein (a), and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Insulin resistance was calculated with the formula, proposed by Matthews et al. (1985) : HOMA-IR = (insulin[mmol/L] x glucose[mU/L])/22.5. Results: The evaluation of the nutritional status of the subjects reflected a progressive increase in the values of anthropometric variables as the nutritional status of the subjects worsened. The results of this study showed, regardless of age and gender, 85.01% of the subjects were of normal weight, whereas 9.99% were overweight, and 4.99% were obese. The metabolic study reflected that in comparison to normal-weight and overweight students, obese students had significantly higher serum levels (p < 0,0001) of HbA1c, basal insulin, basal glycemia, basal NEFA, lipoprotein (a), and HOMA-IR. Conclusions: Obesity was found to be a serious health problem in the population of adolescents studied, especially given the high cardiovascular risk that is characteristic of this condition. As reflected in the results of this study, obesity led to the premature development of metabolic disorders, which generally do not appear until adulthood.

Palabras clave : Nutritional status; Insuline resistance; Cardiovascular risk; Adolescents.

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