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Nutrición Hospitalaria

On-line version ISSN 1699-5198Print version ISSN 0212-1611

Abstract

CAMINA MARTIN, M.ª Alicia et al. Changes in body composition in relation to the stage of dementia in a group of institutionalized elderly. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2013, vol.28, n.4, pp.1093-1101. ISSN 1699-5198.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2013.28.4.6403.

Objective: To assess the nutritional status of a group of institutionalized elderly with dementia by analysing the changes in the body composition according to their evolutionary state. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out assessing the nutritional status and the body composition (anthropometry, MNA and bioimpedance) in 63 institutionalized elderly with a diagnosis of dementia in evolutionary stages 5, 6 and 7 of the GDS (Global Deterioration Scale) scales and the FAST (Functional Assessment Stating) scale. The fat mass index (FMI) and the fat-free mass index (FFMI) were calculated. The results were analysed by one-factor ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis factorial ANOVA and Scheffe's a posteriori contrasts. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: Mean age was 80.6 years (95%CI: 78.3-83.0; Range: 51-95). According to MNA, 38.1% of the sample had hyponutrition, 60.3% was at risk for malnourishment; and 1.6% had normal nutrition. The average body mass index was 23.06 (22.01-24.10) kg/m2, without any significant difference by the degree of evolutionary state, except for those on palliative care (mean: 19.85; 95%CI: 78.3-83.0 kg/m2). The patients in the non-palliative stages GDS/FAST 5, 6 and 7 presented a Z-Score of FMI close to a 0 SD, and a Z-Score for the FFMI of approximately -1 DS. These results are compatible with a sarcopenia situation. In patients on palliative care (GDS/FAST > 7c) both indexes were significantly lower. Conclusion: The analysis of body composition should always be included in the assessment of the nutritional status. If not, it would not be possible to detect situations of sarcopenic obesity, which is rather prevalent in elderly people with these characteristics.

Keywords : Nutritional assessment; Body composition; Malnutrition; Dementia; Mini Nutritional Assessment.

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