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Nutrición Hospitalaria

On-line version ISSN 1699-5198Print version ISSN 0212-1611

Abstract

VAQUERIZO ALONSO, Clara  and  GRUPO DE TRABAJO PARENTTE et al. Management of parenteral nutrition in intensive care units in Spain. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2013, vol.28, n.5, pp.1498-1507. ISSN 1699-5198.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2013.28.5.6815.

Introduction and objectives: some relevant aspects related to parenteral nutrition in the Spanish ICUs are still unclear. These aspects include: caloric and protein intake, total volume, glycemic control, the type of lipid emulsion used or the comparison of different formulations. Our objective is to know the clinical practice patterns of artificial nutrition therapeutics, particularly of parenteral nutrition in the Spanish ICUs. Material and methods: twelve representative ICU's participated in a nutrition survey from January to March 2012. The survey was divided in two sections: A) Management of artificial nutritional support in critically ill patients and B) Assessment of a new parenteral nutrition formulation adapted to critically ill patients. The following information was collected: percentage of patients receiving artificial nutrition; availability of enteral formulations; types of lipid emulsions; calories, amino acids and lipids supplied; addition of glutamine, vitamins and trace elements; management of volume and hyperglycemia; and comparative data between patients receiving the new formulation vs. standard formulations: glycemic control, assessment of hepatic function and infectious complications as well as the intake of total calories, proteins, volume and insulin supplied. Results: The average number of hospital beds and ICU beds is 780 and 25 respectively; the average number of patients admitted in the ICU is 950 per year. 49% were medical patients, 31% surgical patients and 20% trauma patients. 59.75% of patients required artificial nutrition (AN), of which, 58.7% required enteral nutrition (EN), 16% total parenteral nutrition (TPN); and 25.3% suplementary parenteral nutrition (SPN). When EN was contraindicated, 83.3% of patients were started on early TPN (24 hours) and if EN was not sufficient, 66.7% were started on SPN within 48 hours. Regarding prescribers usual practice, 50% tried to reduce volume of PN and 100% of them had an insulin infusion protocol. 39% of prescribers recommended high-protein, low-volume and low-glucose TPN; 42% prescribe TPN with SMOF (soybean, MCT, olive and fish oil); and 33% with OOBE (olive oil based emulsion) as lipid emulsion. 92% added glutamine. 60% considered that the new formulation may be indicated for sepsis, trauma, burn patients and MOF (multiple organ failure) and the 30% would use it as a routine therapy at the time of admission. 40% considered that insulin requirements were reduced; 50% claimed better volume management and 60% highlighted the protein/volume ratio. Attending to patient outcome, patients receiving the specific formulation have less affected hepatic function, higher protein intake and lower volume infusion but no significant differences were observed and they required less insulin dosage (p = 0.07). Conclusions: In the twelve ICUs included in the survey, the clinical practice patterns related to parenteral nutrition management are adapted to the guidelines of scientific societies such as the Spanish Society of Intensive Care Medicine and Coronary Units (SEMICYUC), the Spanish Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (SENPE) and the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN). The new formulations designed for critically ill patients may be indicated for these conditions.

Keywords : Parenteral nutrition; Nutrition survey; Intensive Care Unit; Enteral nutrition.

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