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Nutrición Hospitalaria

On-line version ISSN 1699-5198Print version ISSN 0212-1611

Abstract

ALONSO CASTELLANOS, Sara et al. Associated metabolic and nutritional side effects to biological cancer therapy. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2014, vol.29, n.2, pp.259-268. ISSN 1699-5198.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2014.29.2.7023.

Introduction: The different types of cancer represent one of the main causes of morbimortality worldwide. Classical anti-tumor therapy (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy) has notably increased the survival rate. Biological therapies, with selective and frequently specific mechanisms of action, are a relatively recent acquisition in oncologic therapy; among the most commonly used ones are: cytokines, monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and mTOR inhibitors. The nutritional and metabolic adverse effects of classical therapy are well documented in the literature and the clinical guidelines, which is not the case for biological therapy. Objective: To review the literature in this field and to detail in an organized manner the results obtained. Methods: Indexed literature and the technical data sheets of the drugs included in the different families were revised through the Spanish Agency of Medicines and Health Care Products until July of 2013. The symptoms and clinical signs of a theoretical action on the nutritional and metabolic status were recorded. Results: The specific action of each family is described. The possible adverse effects of each one of them on the nutritional and metabolic status are grouped, detailing and differentiating them in tables for easier and more friendly-user consultation. The most prevalent possible side effects observed are those related with the appetite, the gastrointestinal tract, and electrolytic impairments. Conclusions: the possible side effects associated to biological therapies are plenty and occur with different frequency and severity. It is important to know the nutritional and metabolic impact when using these therapies for preventing and managing them.

Keywords : Neoplasm; Biological therapy; Malnutrition/adverse effects.

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