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Nutrición Hospitalaria

versión On-line ISSN 1699-5198versión impresa ISSN 0212-1611

Resumen

BETANCOURT ORTIZ, Sarita Lucila. Bone mineral density, dietary calcium and risk factors for presumptive osteoporosis in ecuadorian aged women. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2014, vol.30, n.2, pp.372-384. ISSN 1699-5198.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2014.30.2.7563.

Rationale: Osteoporosis is a cause for pathological fractures and loss of autonomy and validism in the post-menopausal woman. Identification of risk factors might serve for preventing the appearance of this co-morbidity. Objectives: To determine the association between loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and selected demographic, clinical and anthropometric features in the post-menopausal woman that can be assumed as risk factors of osteoporosis. Study design: Non-experimental, cross-sectional, analytical. Study serie: 53 women with ages ≥ 60 años assisted at the "San Juan" Specialities Hospital in Riobamba (Province of Chimborazo, Republic of Ecuador). Materials and methods: BMD was determined in 2 regions of interest (lumbar spine I femur) by means of DEXA (DPX-L, Lunar Technologies, USA). Loss of BMD was established with "t"-scores < -1.0 standard deviations. Amount and quality of dietetic Calcium intakes were estimated by means of pCa score that takes into account frequency of consumption of foods regarded as sources of calcium and mineral bioavailability. Nature and strength of association between loss of BMD, on one hand, and presuntive risk factors of osteoporosis and state of dietetic calcium intake, on the other, were assessed. Results: Loss of BMD was dependent upon region of interest: Femur: Osteoporosis: 13.2% + Osteopenia: 50.9%; Lumbar spine: Osteoporosis: 49.1% + Osteopenia: 37.7%. Highest intakes of dietetic calcium concentrated among Milk and dairy products (pCa = 26.56), Meat, poultry, fish, seafood and eggs (pCa = 6.51), Beans and others legumes (soy included) (pCa = 2.85); and Vegetables (pCa = 2.54); respectively. DMO "t" score associated with woman's age, family history of bone fractures, Body Mass Index (BMI), and body fat (estimated by means of DEXA). Dietetic calcium intakes were independent of presumptive risk factors of osteoporosis and DMO "t" score in the region of interest. Odds-ratios for variables univariately associated with BMD were as follows: Age: OR = 2.09 (p < 0.05); BMI: OR = 0.278 (p = 0.059); and Body fat: OR = 0.553 (p > 0.05); respectively. Conclusions: Loss of BMD is significantly associated with female aging, and an increased presence of body fat. Family history of bone fractures might serve for identifying post-menopausal women at increased risk of loss of BMD. Further research is required in order to establish the role of physical exercise and better intakes of dietetic calcium as protective factors against loss of BMD.

Palabras clave : Osteoporosis; Osteopenia; Bone mineral densitometry; Menopause; Dietetic calcium.

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