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Nutrición Hospitalaria

versión On-line ISSN 1699-5198versión impresa ISSN 0212-1611

Resumen

PRIOR-SANCHEZ, Inmaculada et al. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: experience in a district general hospital. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2014, vol.30, n.6, pp.1289-1294. ISSN 1699-5198.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2014.30.6.7808.

Background: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disorder that affects the pyramidal tract, producing progressive motor dysfunctions leading to paralysis. These patients can present with dysphagia, requiring nutritional support with a nasogastric tube or Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG). PEG is associated with increased survival rates. However, the timing of PEG placement remains a significant issue for clinicians. Objective: To analyse the characteristics of ALS patients at the moment of PEG placement and their progression. Methods and materials: Descriptive retrospective study including patients diagnosed with ALS and PEG who were assessed during the 2005-2014 period in our hospital. Nutritional parameters and respiratory function were assessed for all patients, as well as their progression. The data was analysed using SPSS15. Results: 37 patients were included (56.8% men, 43.2% women) with an average age of 60 at diagnosis, and an average age of 63.1 at PEG placement. 48.6% started with spinal affection and 51.4%, with bulbar affection. 43.2% of the patients received oral nutritional supplements prior to PEG placement for a mean period of 11.3 months. The mean forced vital capacity at diagnosis was 65.45±13.67%, with a negative progression up to 39.47±14.69% at the moment of PEG placement. 86.5% of patients required non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation. 86.5% presented with dysphagia, 64.9% with weight loss > 5-10% from their usual weight, 8.1% with low Body Mass Index, 27% with malnutrition and 73% with aworsened breathing function; therefore, 100% met the criteria for PEG placement according to our protocol. The period on enteral feeding was extended for 10.1 months with a mortality of 50% during the first 6 months from PEG placement. Conclusions: There is evidence of a 3-year delay between diagnosis and PEG placement, with a survival rate of 50% at 6 months from PEG insertion. Further studies are required to establish whether an earlier placement might increase survival rates.

Palabras clave : Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Enteral nutrition; Gastrostomy.

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