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Nutrición Hospitalaria

versión On-line ISSN 1699-5198versión impresa ISSN 0212-1611

Resumen

VILLAR VIDAL, María et al. Compliance of nutritional recommendations of Spanish pregnant women according to sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics: a cohort study. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2015, vol.31, n.4, pp.1803-1812. ISSN 1699-5198.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2015.31.4.8293.

Objective: To assess nutrient intakes and compliance with nutritional recommendations in pregnant women according to selected sociodemographic characteristics and lifestyles. Methods: Cross-sectional study based on data from Spanish INMA cohort which recruited 2,585 pregnant women between 2003 and 2008 from four different regions of Spain. Sociodemographic information and anthropometry was collected and dietary intake was assessed through Food Frequency Questionnaires. The adequacy of food group intake was assessed considering current recommendations and from the Spanish Society of Nutrition. Moreover, intake of vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E, were compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes of the US Institute of Medicine. Results: Percentage of women that did not fulfil the recommendations for cereals and legumes (3-4 servings/ day) was 70.0%, for fruit intake (2-3 servings/day) it was 39.2%, for vegetables (2-4 servings/day) 47.3% and for dairy (3-4 servings/day) it was 51.6%. Intake of fruit and vegetables increased with age, educational degree and with physical activity (p<0.05). Also non-Spanish achieved better the recommendations. Percentage of pregnant women that did not fulfil the requirements (DRI) of vitamins A and C was 13.2 % and 16.2 respectively. More than 65% of the women did not met the recommended diary intake of vitamin E of 19 mg/day during the lactation period. Conclusions: Maternal age, education, having healthy habits, as well as country of origin are factors strongly associated with the composition of the diet. Sedentary women and those with a low education are at risk for low vitamin and antioxidant intake and non-optimal food choices during pregnancy.

Palabras clave : Diet; Pregnancy; Inadequacies; Nutritional guidelines; Sociodemographic characteristics; Antioxidants.

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