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Nutrición Hospitalaria

On-line version ISSN 1699-5198Print version ISSN 0212-1611

Abstract

ROS, Emilio  and  FESNAD et al. Consensus on fats and oils in the diet of spanish adults: position paperof the spanish federation of food, nutrition and dietetics societies. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2015, vol.32, n.2, pp.435-477. ISSN 1699-5198.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2015.32.2.9202.

The quality of dietary fat critically influences health.In this consensus document the scientific evidence relatingeffects of dietary fat quantity and quality on cardiovascularrisk is reviewed and recommendations forthe Spanish adult population are issued. As a novelty innutrition guidelines, emphasis is made more on parentfoods than on fatty acids per se. In summary, replacingsaturated fatty acids (SFA) for monounsaturated fattyacids (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)reduces cardiovascular risk. Recent data suggest thatSFA proper may be harmful or not depending on the parentfood, a reason why an intake threshold is not established,but consumption of foods containing excess SFA,such as butter, some processed meats, and commercialconfectionery and fried foods is discouraged. The establishedthreshold of 1 % of energy intake as trans FA, well known to be harmful for cardiovascular risk, is fulfilledin Spain due in part to its present low levels in margarines.MUFA are beneficial or neutral for cardiovascularrisk depending on their dietary sources (virgin olive oilversus other fats), and no intake limitations are established.n-6 PUFA are cardioprotective and recommendedintakes (5-10% of energy) are not always fulfilled in theSpanish population, thus increased consumption of theirvegetable food sources (seeds, derived oils, and margarines)is encouraged. Marine n-3 PUFA are also cardioprotectiveand the recommendation stands to eat fatty fish ≥2 servings/weeks to reach intake levels of at least 250 mg/day. Increasing evidence suggests that alpha-linolenicacid (ALA), the vegetable n-3 PUFA, is also cardioprotective,but the parent foods (walnuts, soy products,green-leaf vegetables) may provide benefits beyond ALA itself. Finally, low-fat (high carbohydrate, particularlywhen having a high glycemic index) diets appear tolack cardiovascular preventive effects, while high-fat, high-vegetable fat dietary patterns such as the Mediterraneandiet, are protective, a reason why no upper limiton fat intake is established for the Spanish population. This position statement targets dietitians, nutritionistsand other health professionals involved in dietary counselso they can deliver it rightly and according to the lastscientific evidence.

Keywords : FESNAD; Monounsaturated fatty acids; Poliunsaturated fatty acids; Trans fatty acids; Saturated fatty acids; Consensus.

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