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Nutrición Hospitalaria

versión On-line ISSN 1699-5198versión impresa ISSN 0212-1611

Resumen

MORA URDA, Ana Isabel et al. Relationship between patterns of breastfeeding and blood pressure in brazilian and spanish schoolchildren. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2015, vol.32, n.4, pp.1568-1575. ISSN 1699-5198.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2015.32.4.9335.

Introduction: the relationship between early feeding and blood pressure in later life is still uncertain and sometimes contradictory. Some studies point to the protective effect of breastfeeding on cardiovascular disease, while others do not obtain conclusive results. Objectives: the aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between breastfeeding patterns during the first months of life and blood pressure in childhood, in two samples of children from two populations with different socio-cultural characteristics, controlling for quality feeding in infancy. Methods: the study, with a transversal and retrospective design, was conducted with 492 schoolchildren aged between 8 and 10 years, it consists of two samples, both collected from public schools, one in Madrid (Spain) and one in Vitoria, Espirito Santo (Brazil). Results: ninety percent of the sample was breastfed, 196 (44.2%) from Madrid and 247 (55.7%) from Vitória/ES. The average duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Madrid was 12.89 weeks (std = 9.6) and in Vitória/ES, 22.00 weeks (std = 13.4), with statistically significant differences. The mean values of systolic and dyastolic blood pressure, were significantly higher in the Brazilian sample. The prevalences of borderline hypertension and hypertension were also higher in Brazil than in Spanish, 68% vs 32% and 60% vs 40%, respectively. Association between shorter duration of EBF and higher prevalence of hypertension in childhood, was observed in the two samples. Regarding the association between diet quality and blood pressure values, this was only significant in the Brazilian sample, but not in Spanish. Discussion: in both samples a protective effect of breastfeeding on blood pressure was observed, however when comparing the two samples appear to be a contradiction since the Brazilian children were breastfed for longer than the Spaniards but their Pressure Arterial values and the Hypertension prevalence were higher in the Spanish sample. This contradiction is resolved by controlling the effect of feeding in infancy. The food quality of Brazilian children is worse than that of Spaniards, mainly due to a higher consumption of processed foods very high in sodium content. Conclusion: the possible protective effect of breastfeeding, is reduced at later stages of the life cycle if food habit are not appropriate or do not meet minimum quality requirements. Therefore, although breastfeeding plays an important role in preventing the development of hypertension in children is not enough to support the practice of breastfeeding but prevention work is ongoing and should insist on eating habits and promote healthy lifestyles throughout the entire life cycle of people.

Palabras clave : Breastfeeding; Blood pressure; Food quality; Spain; Brazil.

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