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Nutrición Hospitalaria

versão On-line ISSN 1699-5198versão impressa ISSN 0212-1611

Resumo

AGUILAR CORDERO, María José et al. Maternal diabetes mellitus and its impact on child neurodevelopment: systematic review. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2015, vol.32, n.6, pp.2484-2495. ISSN 1699-5198.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2015.32.6.10069.

Background: at present, diabetes has become a global health problem. The consequences that entails, both short and long term, do more studies and knowledge necessary for detection, control and treatment. Moreover, its prevalence is increasing in both the general population and pregnant women. Numerous effects and complications have been reported in infants of diabetic mothers, such as fetal macrosomia, hypoglycemia and increased risk of developing obesity. This condition could have negative effects on the neurological development of the child and could affect his intellectual capacity and increase cognitive impairment. Aims: to analyze the studies which have investigated in the relationship between diabetes mellitus during pregnancy and its impact on child neurodevelopment short and long-term. Methods: we performed a systematic search and 20 specific articles on the subject selected would be selected following the PRISMA guidelines. Results: in the studies consulted include a large methodological variety in both instruments and cognitive assessment scales, as in the age at which the sample is studied. However, most researchers conclude that maternal diabetes can have consequences for the child, both short and long-term. A higher rate of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders and neurodevelopmental impairment is also described, which increase the neurobehavioral disorders and intellectual disability. Conclusions: most of the studies are agree in describing neurodevelopmental disorders in children of diabetic mothers, both in cognition and in the specific areas related to expressive language, social relations, graphical skills and psychomotor development. Other research has linked maternal diabetes with an increased incidence of autism spectrum disorders such as hyperactivity, attention deficits and schizophrenia.

Palavras-chave : Gestational diabetes and neurological disorders; Gestational diabetes and effects on offspring; Gestational diabetes and autism spectrum disorder; Diabetes mellitus and congenital abnormalities.

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