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Nutrición Hospitalaria

On-line version ISSN 1699-5198Print version ISSN 0212-1611

Abstract

AGUILAR CORDERO, María José et al. Non pharmacological methods to reduce pain in newborns: systematic review. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2015, vol.32, n.6, pp.2496-2507. ISSN 1699-5198.  http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2015.32.6.10070.

Background: newborns require diagnostic and preventive procedures since the early days of life, such as the heel prick screening for metabolic disorders, intramuscular injection of vaccines and, in some cases, channeling venous route. Which are often associated with a painful sensation. The evaluation of the intensity of painful stimuli in newborns has been studied in recent years. Various scales that collect physiological and behavioral parameters have been used. This somewhat has allowed us to get closer to the intensity of pain perceived by the child, and to decide if analgesia is necessary. In regards of methods of pain relief, the most important ones are the nonpharmacological approaches due to their safety, effectiveness and low cost. Therefore, we analyze the studies that evaluate the effectiveness of nonpharmacological interventions for painful procedures (IFN) in reducing pain in neonates. Methods: a systematic search would be performed and 21 specific articles on the subject would be selected, following the PRISMA guidelines. Results: numerous studies have proven the effectiveness of nonpharmacological interventions in relieving pain in term and preterm infants. It highlights a methodological choice, especially in the measuring of painful stimulus. It requires greater involvement on the part of health workers due to the negative consequences that entails the feeling of pain at an early age, including sleep disturbances. Conclusions: we conclude that some of the nonpharmacological interventions are most commonly used oral administration of sweet solutions, breastfeeding and kangaroo, which have proven effective, as it involves numerous benefits for the baby. However, further studies are required in this regard, and the implementation of a universal evaluation method for the subsequent evaluation of results in the medium and long term.

Keywords : Painful procedures in neonates; Nonpharmacological pain relief; Scales of neonatal pain and preterm infants.

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