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Nutrición Hospitalaria

versión On-line ISSN 1699-5198versión impresa ISSN 0212-1611

Resumen

CUERDA, Cristina et al. Prevalence of malnutrition in subjects over 65 years of age in the Community of Madrid: the DREAM + 65 Study. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2016, vol.33, n.2, pp.263-269. ISSN 1699-5198.  http://dx.doi.org/10.20960/nh.101.

Introduction: Disease-related malnutrition (DRM) is a frequent community healthcare problem that predominantly affects adults over 65 years of age and increases morbidity and mortality rates, while also decreasing quality of life. Objective: To study the prevalence of DRM in adults over 65 in different community healthcare centres belonging to the Regional Social Welfare Service of the Community of Madrid. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 33 community healthcare centres in Madrid (6 primary healthcare centres (PC), 9 care centres for the elderly (CE), 9 hospitals (H) and 9 nursing homes (NH)) selected by means of multistage sampling. The variables studied were age, sex, level of dependence according to the Red Cross disability scale, reason for admission and underlying disease, habitat (urban-periurban-rural) and geographical distribution (north-centre-south). The Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA-screening) was employed as a nutritional screening tool in all the centres. In the case of patients with positive screening (at risk-malnutrition), the MNA-assessment was carried out. Statistical analysis was conducted with the SPSS 21.0 package and included descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test, one-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test and univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression analysis (LR). Statistical significance was considered to be p < 0.05. Results: A total of 1,103 subjects were recruited (275 PC, 278 CE, 281 H, 269 NH), mean age 79.5 ± 8.4 years (41.2% were males and 58.8% females). The subjects from H and NH had a higher degree of disability (p < 0.001). The overall prevalence of DRM was 10%, 23.3% being at risk of malnutrition, with differences among the 4 types of community healthcare centres (p < 0.001). The univariate LR analysis showed significant differences in the prevalence of malnutrition according to age, sex, degree of dependence, type of community healthcare centre, habitat and geographical zone. Nevertheless, in the multivariate analysis, only the degree of dependence, the type of centre and habitat were statistically significant. Conclusions: The prevalence of DRM in adults over 65 years of age in the Community of Madrid amounts to 10%, with another 23.3% at risk of malnutrition. The variables that were independently related with malnutrition in the multivariate analysis were only the patients' level of dependence and the type and setting of the community healthcare centre.

Palabras clave : Malnutrition; Nursing home; Community; Care centers; Hospitals.

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