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Nutrición Hospitalaria

On-line version ISSN 1699-5198Print version ISSN 0212-1611

Abstract

BAENA GONZALEZ, Marta  and  MOLINA RECIO, Guillermo. Approach of dysphagia in Alzheimer patients. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2016, vol.33, n.3, pp.739-748. ISSN 1699-5198.  http://dx.doi.org/10.20960/nh.286.

Introduction: Dysphagia is a symptom that refers to the inability to move the bolus from the mouth to the stomach. Despite its importance and the severity of possible complications it is relatively little known and studied. The prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in Alzheimer patients is up to 84% and it may cause complications with great clinical significance due to alterations in swallowing efficiency and security. Aim: To know the current state of knowledge regarding the integrated approach of dysphagia in Alzheimer patients, finding the factors that enable an early diagnosis to facilitate the prevention of complications and to choose the pattern most appropriate action. Methodology: Systematic review of papers published English and Spanish between 2005 and 2014. Databases consulted: PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Elsevier, Scielo and Dialnet. Mesh terms used: disfagia, dysphagia, alzheimer, and texture modified food. Results: The diagnosis of dysphagia in Alzheimer patients is performed using clinical methods and complementary examinations such as videofluoroscopy, considered to be the gold standard for the study of oropharyngeal dysphagia, detecting from 1/3 to 1/4 of the cases, who could present no diagnosable clinically silent aspiration. There are therapeutic strategies that include changes in bolus volume and viscosity, postural changes, deglutition maneuvers, rehabilitation procedures and increase sensory techniques that have proved effective, but it is a complex task that requires a multidisciplinary approach for a correct diagnosis and treatment to improve the quality of life of these patients. Conclusions: There is a lack of scientific evidence in addressing dysphagia and of knowledge about the feeding and nutrition of these patients. This condition requires a multidisciplinary intervention where dietary measures play a major role.

Keywords : Alzheimer; Dysphagia; Multidisciplinary; Systematic review.

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