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Nutrición Hospitalaria

versión On-line ISSN 1699-5198versión impresa ISSN 0212-1611

Resumen

MARTINEZ GARCIA, Rosa María; JIMENEZ ORTEGA, Ana Isabel  y  NAVIA LOMBAN, Beatriz. Supplements in pregnancy: the latest recommendations. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2016, vol.33, suppl.4, pp.3-7. ISSN 1699-5198.  http://dx.doi.org/10.20960/nh.336.

Pregnancy is a challenge from the nutritional point of view, because nutrient requirements are increased and alter its intake can affect maternal and fetal health. Micronutrient deficiency states are related to preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, abortion and congenital anomalies. Currently, the diet of many expectant mothers is insufficient in micronutrients, in this cases supplementation is necessary. It is recommended supplementation with folic acid in doses of 400 mcg/day and 5 mg/day in risk pregnant, and should begin at least one month before conception and during the first 12 weeks gestation, and extend it throughout pregnancy in mothers with nutritional risk. It is important to keep watch the proper dose of folic acid to prevent possible adverse effects of unmetabolized accumulation in plasma. A high percentage of pregnant women presented iron deficiency anemia, being recommended intermittent use of iron supplements (with lower gastrointestinal alteration and oxidative stress); not recommended for mothers without anemia (hemoglobin> 13.5 g / L). Since calcium absorption is increased up to 40% in gestation, its supplementation is not recommended for mothers with adequate intakes (3 dairy / day), and its use must be reserved to women with inadequate intakes and/or high risk of preeclampsia. Regarding the iodine, there are conflicting positions by different working groups established potassium iodide supplementation in women who do not reach their recommended intake (3 servings of milk and dairy products + 2 g of iodized salt), with their diets. Given that vitamin A and D can be toxic to mother and fetus, it is not recommended its supplementation except in cases of deficiency. Although the use of multiple micronutrients supplements may favorably impact the outcome of pregnancy, more scientific evidence is needed to establish the replacement of iron and folic acid with a multiple micronutrient supplement.

Palabras clave : Dietary supplements; Pregnancy; Micronutrients; Maternal-fetal health.

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