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Nutrición Hospitalaria

On-line version ISSN 1699-5198Print version ISSN 0212-1611

Abstract

GOMEZ CANDELA, Carmen et al. Consensus document about the nutritional evaluation and management of eating disorders: anorexia nervosa. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2018, vol.35, n.spe1, pp.11-48.  Epub Sep 21, 2020. ISSN 1699-5198.  http://dx.doi.org/10.20960/nh.1561.

Anorexia nervosa is the most common psychiatric disease among young women and it is assumed to be of multifactorial origin. Diagnostic criteria have recently been modified; therefore amenorrhea has ceased to be a part of them. This disease shows a large variability in its presentation and severity which conditions different therapeutic approaches and the need to individualize the treatment, thus it is indispensable a multidisciplinary approach.

The goals are to restore nutritional status (through an individualized diet plan based on a healthy consumption pattern), treat complications and comorbidities, nutritional education (based on healthy eating and nutritional patterns), correction of compensatory behaviors and relapse prevention.

The treatment will vary according to the patient's clinical situation, and it may be performed in outpatient clinics (when there is clinical stability), in a day hospital or ambulatory clinic (intermediate mode between traditional outpatient treatment and hospitalization) or hospitalization (when there is outpatient management failure or presence of serious medical or psychiatric complications). Artificial nutrition using oral nutritional supplements, enteral nutrition and exceptionally parenteral nutrition may be necessary in certain clinical settings. In severely malnourished patients the refeeding syndrome should be avoided.

Anorexia nervosa is associated with numerous medical complications which determines health status, life quality, and is closely related to mortality. There is little clinical evidence to assess the results of different treatments in anorexia nervosa, when most of the recommendations are being based on expert consensus.

Keywords : Anorexia nervosa; Nutritional support; Health education; Oral nutritional supplements; Refeeding syndrome; Eating disorder.

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