SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.36 issue4Effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on neoadjuvant chemotherapy-induced toxicity in patients with locally advanced breast cancer: a randomized, controlled, double-blinded clinical trialPrevalence of the early onset of maternal breastfeeding author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Nutrición Hospitalaria

On-line version ISSN 1699-5198Print version ISSN 0212-1611


IGUACEL, Isabel et al. Feeding patterns and growth trajectories in breast-fed and formula-fed infants during the introduction of complementary food. Nutr. Hosp. [online]. 2019, vol.36, n.4, pp.777-785.  Epub Feb 17, 2020. ISSN 1699-5198.


several investigations have identified breastfeeding as a protective factor for rapid infant weight gain and childhood obesity while other studies have found that this protective effect could be the result of confounding factors.


to assess the associations between lactation practices (breast-fed vs formula-fed infants) during the introduction of complementary food period, as well as the following: a) patterns of food intake; and b) trajectories of growth at six, nine and 12 months (z-score of weight, height and body mass index [BMI] and changes in these z-scores from six to 12 months).


two hundred and three infants randomly selected from Spanish Primary Health Centres were measured. Parents recorded all infant's food consumption for three days (g/day). Linear regression models were applied.


breast-fed infants had a lower intake of cereals, fruit baby food, vegetables with meat/fish and a total intake of food compared to formula-fed infants at nine months of age. After adjusting for sex, parental education and total food intake, breastfed children continued to have lower intake of cereals (-5.82, 95% CI: -9.22, -2.43), and lower total food intake (-301.23, 95% CI: -348.50, -253.96). Breast-fed infants had a lower change in z-score of weight, height and BMI from six to 12 months of age and these differences remained when adjusting for all confounders.


formula-fed infants during the complementary feeding period have a higher food intake and show higher rates of rapid infant weight gain compared to breast-fed infants. These differences in growth trajectories depending on breastfeeding maintenance and food intake during early life must be considered in adiposity risk evaluation.

Keywords : Breastfeeding; Formula; Infants; Complementary food; Obesity; Growth trajectories.

        · abstract in Spanish     · text in English     · English ( pdf )