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Anales de Medicina Interna

versión impresa ISSN 0212-7199


PUCHE CANAS, E.  y  LUNA DEL CASTILLO, J. D.. Adverse drug reactions in patients visiting a general hospital: a meta-analysis of results. An. Med. Interna (Madrid) [online]. 2007, vol.24, n.12, pp.574-578. ISSN 0212-7199.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to present the results of a meta-analysis on adverse drug reactions (ADR) in spanish patients admitted to hospital and presenting to emergency department over the past 20 years. Patients and methods: An exhaustive review was undertaken of relevant articles in the IME (Spanish Medical Index) and MEDLINE databases and published between 1985 and 2006, rigorously selecting 12 out of 30 publications after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Information was required on: symptomatology, prognosis, type, drugs involved, imputability and admissions for ADR; and factors associated with ADR onset, e.g., age, sex, number of drugs, previous history of ADR, method used for ADR detection, and length of study period. A random-effects model (DerSimonian and Laird) and the STATA 9.1 programme were used for the meta-analysis. Results: The combined estimation of the percentage of Spanish patients with ADR was 13% (95% CI); with severe ADR, 12 % (95% CI) and with fatal ADR, 0.1% (95% CI). ADR diagnosis was definite in 36% (95% CI), probable in 49.6% (95% CI), and type A in 71% (95% CI) of cases. Among patients in the Emergency Department for ADR, 5.1% (95% IC) were hospitalized. No association was found with number of prescriptions or previous history. Association was established with advanced age and female sex. Digestive, skin, nervous and cardiovascular systems were those most affected by ADR. The drugs most frequently implicated included NSAIDs, digoxin, IACE, calcium antagonists, furosemide, i.v. metamizol, antidiabetics, benzodiazepines, adrenergic bronchodilators and classic antipsychotics. Conclusions: ADRs constitute a major medical and economic problem with aspects that have yet to be defined. Greater efforts are warranted to unify criteria for the publication of results in observational studies on ARD and to determine the role played by some factors associated with their onset, e.g., sex, previous history and comorbidities.

Palabras clave : Adverse drug reactions; Hospital; Hospital emergencies; Hospitalized patients.

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