The European Journal of Psychiatry
versión impresa ISSN 0213-6163
SANCHEZ-MORA, Nora et al. Risk factors for respiratory disease in chronic psychiatric in patients. Eur. J. Psychiat. [online]. 2007, vol.21, n.3, pp.212-219. ISSN 0213-6163.
Objective: Individuals with schizophrenia and other chronic mental illnesses present a series of risk factors, that predispose them to extensive medical comorbidity. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for respiratory disease in chronic psychiatric inpatients. Methods: All patients at a long-term mental institution were invited to participate in this study. Socio-demographic data, tobacco and alcohol consumption, respiratory symptoms and chest x-rays were collected from 154 patients. Sputum microscopy and cultures for M. tuberculosis were done in specific cases. Results: The symptoms reported were cough (58%); expectoration (44.2%); dyspnea (28.6%); hemoptysis (9.7%), and chest pain (20.1%). There were chest x-ray changes in 57.1% of patients. These were suggestive of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in 31.2% and an interstitial pattern in 19.1%. The prevalence of tuberculosis in this sample was 4.5%. Schizophrenia was the most common mental illness (43.5%), followed by an organic mental disorder (32.5%). We found a positive relationship between schizophrenia and cigarette smoking (odds ratio 2.30, 95% CI 1.11 to 4.76), and schizophrenia and x-ray changes (odds ratio 2.35, 95% CI 1.15 to 4.83). There was no significant relationship with other psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: The high prevalence of respiratory morbidity in patients with chronic mental illness hospitalized in long-term care facilities, is probably due to factors such as extreme poverty, tobacco consumption, overcrowding, and nutritional deficit.
Palabras clave : Chronic mental illness; Inpatients; Respiratory disease; Risk factors; Medical comorbidity.