Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
versión impresa ISSN 0365-6691
Purpose: To review and to update the current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and the pathogenesis of thyroid orbitopathy. To propose a practical, basic and precocious approach based in the knowledge of the disorder. Methods: Literature review and exposition of our experience in the management of thyroid orbitopathy. Results: Thyroid orbitopathy is an inflammatory orbital disease that probably has an autoimmune origin and most of the time is related to systemic disorders of the thyroid gland. The disease has a variable clinical presentation and it may cause severe damage in vision and orbital architecture, therefore, producing a decrease in the patients quality of life and may also alter significantly the personal behavior. Pathogenesis of the disease is not yet fully understood, but it is widely held that there is a common autoantigen shared between the thyroid gland and the orbital adipogenic fibroblasts. Women are more likely to develop thyroid orbitopathy, and the disease is clearly affected by several factors such as smoking, age, sex and race. Conclusions: Clinical knowledge is essential for the early diagnosis of this disorder, and it is the most important factor for the proper management of the disease. The medical treatment must be initiated promptly and should be aggressive and based in the current phase of the disease, in order to avoid the severe damage that follows thyroid orbitopathy. The surgical approach must be logical and sequential, but, on the other hand, must be rapid and aggressive in order to return the patient to his/her labour, social and familiar environment.
Palabras clave : Orbit; Thyroid; Graves Disease; Ophthalmopathy; Orbitopathy.