Archivos de la Sociedad Española de Oftalmología
versión impresa ISSN 0365-6691
Objective: To review the corneal biomechanic concepts and to analyse, clarify and understand their relevance in refractive surgery. Materials and Methods: A literature review has been done using different databases. Results: Corneal biomechanic concepts are not new and are applied implicitly in numerous surgical procedures. Their origin is related to tonometry studies, but they gained in popularity when they were linked to the treatment of keratoconus, a pathology in which the mechanical properties of the cornea are altered. Factors determining corneal stability were thus defined. Corneal biomechanics have also been used following refractive surgery to study post-operative keratectasia and to improve ablation patterns, which ignores the corneal response. The new ablation systems need to include the biomechanical factors, which motivate research conducted in physical-mathematical models and in corneal wound healing, improving our knowledge about the corneal biomechanical response. Conclusions: The corneal biomechanic concepts have gained in popularity with the advent of refractive surgery, although they did exist previously. Their relevance is linked to improvements in the ablation systems used in an attempt to obtain more accurate and reliable results.
Palabras clave : Corneal biomechanics; keratoconus; refractive surgery; post-operative keratectasia; customized ablation.