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Medicina y Seguridad del Trabajo

versión On-line ISSN 1989-7790versión impresa ISSN 0465-546X

Resumen

GARCIA GARCIA, Ángel et al. Evolution of Ischemic Cardiopathy Impact on Spanish Workers on their Return to Work. Med. segur. trab. [online]. 2015, vol.61, n.240, pp.325-341. ISSN 1989-7790.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4321/S0465-546X2015000300003.

Background: Ischemic cardiopathy is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. It affects the patients quality of life and interferes with their return to work, thus generating a significant economic cost. The aim of our study is to assess labor conditions of patients who suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), highlighting the factors that could have an impact on their return-to-work time. Materials and methods: Observational retrospective study with patients under 65 years old who suffered an AMI between January 2000 and May 2011. Data concerning clinical, social, demographic and labor circumstances was collected to better understand its relation with the return to work. Results: A total of 5.067 patients with Coronary Heart Disease (hereinafter referred to as CHD) were selected. 94% of the samples were men, under 54.3 years old. 3679 out of 5067 patients (72. 6%) returned to work after a heart infarct whereas 1261 (24.9%) did not return, obtaining the permanent incapacity to work. Among the clinical and patient factors, the main determinants were age (mostly <50 years), severity of AMI, poor left ventricular function (EF >50% / EF >50%) and revascularization procedures (percutaneous coronary interventions -PCI- and coronary artery bypass graft surgery, CABG). Regarding the economic and job-related factors three variables were found to be the strongest predictors of returning to work: job demands (physically demanding jobs vs. intellectually demanding jobs), incomes and job conditions (self-employment vs. employees). There were no significant differences on the returning-to-work rate between men or women or between sick leave due to an acute coronary syndrome or due to an angina. We observed that the return-to-work activity increased gradually from 2000-2011 (from rates of 60% in 2000-2002 to over 80% in 2010). This increase is present in all occupational activities as well as in all age ranges. Conclusion: In our study we observed a gradual increase of patients returning to work in recent years. The variables used to better predict the return-to-work time in a period of sick leave after a CHD episode are categorized as follows: clinic viable like the extent of myocardial damage (LVEF <50%/LVEF >50%) and the revascularization procedures (Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass graft surgery, CABG), socioeconomic variables related to the kind of job (self-employment vs. employees) and lastly labor conditions like job demands (physical-demanding jobs vs. intellectual-demanding jobs) or age.

Palabras clave : Myocardial infarction; Myocardial angina; Return to work; Coronary heart disease.

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