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Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas

versión impresa ISSN 1130-0108

Resumen

GARRIDO, A. et al. Epidemiology of chronic inflammatory bowel disease in the Northern area of Huelva. Rev. esp. enferm. dig. [online]. 2004, vol.96, n.10, pp.687-694. ISSN 1130-0108.

Objective: to know the different epidemiologic aspects of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the Northern area of the province of Huelva. Material and methods: we carried out a retrospective (1980-1996) and prospective (1996-2003) study of all patients diagnosed with IBD in the Northern area of Huelva, with 77,856 inhabitants. The distribution of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) was analyzed, as well as sex, age and smoking habit at the time of diagnosis, familial aggregation, appendicectomy rate, phenotype (anatomical site and clinical types), extraintestinal manifestations, and immunosuppressive therapy or surgical requirements. Results: 70 patients with IBD were studied, 40 with UC and 30 with CD. Sex distribution was 39 (55.7%) males (55% with CD vs 56.6% with UC; NS) and 31 (44.3%) females (45% with CD vs 43.3% with UC; NS). Mean age at presentation was 44.7 ± 19.32 years in UC vs 32.3 ± 16.43 in CD; p < 0.001. Familial association was 7.1%. Previous appendicectomy was referred in 2.5% of patients with UC vs 36.7% of those with CD (p < 0.001), and the percentage of smokers was also higher in CD 66.7% vs CU 12.5% (p < 0.001). Anatomical site in UC was: proctitis, 20%; proctosigmoiditis/left colon, 42.5%; extensive colitis, 25%; and pancolitis, 12.5%; in CD was: terminal ileum, 43.3%; colon, 20%; and ileo-colon, 36.7%. The disease patterns were: inflammatory 56.7%, obstruction 26.7%, and fistulization 16.7%. Extraintestinal manifestations were diagnosed in 7.5% of patients with UC vs 16.6% patients with CD; surgery was performed in one patient with UC vs 10 with CD, and one patient with UC required immunosuppressive treatment vs 12 with CD. A multivariant analysis showed that younger age and smoking habit were risk factors for CD vs advanced age in UC, in which case, the smoking habit was a protective factor. The mean incidence rate of IBD starting from 1996 and expressed in cases/100.000 inhabitants/year was 5.2 for UC and 6.6 for CD. Conclusions: the mean incidence of UC in our area was 5.2 cases/100,000/inhabitants/year, and 6.6 for CD. Patients presenting with CD are diagnosed at a significantly younger age that those with UC; the smoking habit is a risk factor for CD while it protects from UC. The characteristics of IBD in our geographical area do not differ substantially from those in other regions of Spain.

Palabras clave : Inflammatory bowel disease; Ulcerative colitis; Crohn's disease; Incidence.

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