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Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas

Print version ISSN 1130-0108


MOLINA-INFANTE, Javier; KATZKA, David A.  and  DELLON, Evan S.. Proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia: a historical perspective on a novel and evolving entity. Rev. esp. enferm. dig. [online]. 2015, vol.107, n.1, pp.29-36. ISSN 1130-0108.

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging chronic esophageal disease, first described in 1993, with a steadily increasing incidence and prevalence in western countries. Over the 80's and early 90's, dense esophageal eosinophilia was mostly associated gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). For the next 15 years, EoE and GERD were rigidly considered separate entities: Esophageal eosinophilia with pathological acid exposure on pH monitoring or response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy was GERD, whereas normal pH monitoring or absence of response to PPIs was EoE. Updated guidelines in 2011 described a novel phenotype, proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE), referring to patients who appear to have EoE clinically, but who achieve complete remission after PPI therapy. Currently, PPI-REE must be formally excluded before diagnosing EoE, since 30-40 % of patients with suspected EoE are eventually diagnosed with PPI-REE. Interestingly, PPI-REE and EoE remain undistinguishable based on clinical, endoscopic, and histological findings, pH monitoring, and measurement of tissue markers and cytokines related to eosinophilic inflammation. This review article aims to revisit the relatively novel concept of PPI-REE from a historical perspective, given the strong belief that only GERD, as an acid peptic disorder, could respond to the acid suppressing ability of PPI therapy, is becoming outdated. Evolving evidence suggests that PPI-REE is genetically and phenotypically undistinguishable from EoE and PPI therapy alone can almost completely reverse allergic inflammation. As such, PPI-REE might constitute a subphenotype of EoE and PPI therapy may be the first therapeutic step and diet/ steroids may represent step up therapy. Possibly, the term PPI-REE will be soon replaced by PPI-responsive EoE. The mechanism as to why some patients respond to PPI therapy (PPI-REE) while others do not (EoE), remains to be elucidated.

Keywords : Proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia; Eosinophilic esophagitis; Gastroesophageal reflux disease; Proton pump inhibitor.

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