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Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas

Print version ISSN 1130-0108


CIENFUEGOS, Javier A. et al. Long-term oncologic results in cancer of the rectum treated by preoperative chemoradiotherapy and surgery: an analysis of 500 cases. Rev. esp. enferm. dig. [online]. 2015, vol.107, n.6, pp.340-346. ISSN 1130-0108.

Background: The standard treatment for locally advanced cancer of the rectum (LACR) and selective cases of stage IV disease is preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision (TME). Despite reductions in local recurrence, disease-free survival (DSF) has remained stable in recent years. Objective: The objective of this study is to analyze patterns of recurrence, long-term survival and prognostic factors in a program of neoadjuvant CRT and surgery in LACR. Methods: Between January 1992 and December 2011, 446 patients with LACR and 54 patients (with single metastases) were treated with pre-operative long course CRT and surgery. Three hundred forty four (66.8%) anterior resections of the rectum and 123 (24.6%) abdomino-perineal resections were performed. Results: With a mean follow-up of 70.06 months, local recurrence was 4.8% and distant recurrence 25.5%. No differences were found in the histopathologic prognostic factors across the three groups studied depending on distance (cm) from the anal margin. Involvement of the circumferential resection margin (CRM+) was significantly greater in tumors in the distal third of the rectum (8.5%; p = 0.04). 67 patients (13.4%) showed a complete pathologic response. DSF at 5 and 10 years was significantly lower in patients with tumors affecting the distal third as compared to the middle third of the rectum (61.9% vs. 57.7%; p = 0.04). Tumors at this distal location resulted in a significantly higher incidence of lung metastases (p = 0.016).

Keywords : Rectal cancer; Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy; Survival; Recurrence pattern; Total mesorectal excision.

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