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Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas

versión impresa ISSN 1130-0108


TRUJILLO-RIVERA, Alejandro et al. Risk factors associated with gastric cancer in Mexico: education, breakfast and chili. Rev. esp. enferm. dig. [online]. 2018, vol.110, n.6, pp.372-379. ISSN 1130-0108.

Background and aim:

the aim of the study was to use a validated questionnaire to identify factors associated with the development of gastric cancer (GC) in the Mexican population.


the study included cases and controls that were paired by sex and ± 10 years of age at diagnosis. In relation to cases, 46 patients with a confirmed histopathological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma-type GC, as reported in the hospital records, were selected, and 46 blood bank donors from the same hospital were included as controls. The previously validated Questionnaire to Find Factors Associated with Gastric Cancer (QUFA-GC(c)) was used to collect data. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (IC) were estimated via univariate analysis (paired OR). Multivariate analysis was performed by logistic regression. A decision tree was constructed using the J48 algorithm.


an association was found by univariate analysis between GC risk and a lack of formal education, having smoked for ≥ 10 years, eating rapidly, consuming very hot food and drinks, a non-suitable breakfast within two hours of waking, pickled food and capsaicin. In contrast, a protective association against GC was found with taking recreational exercise and consuming fresh fruit and vegetables. No association was found between the development of GC and having an income that reflected poverty, using a refrigerator, perception of the omission of breakfast and time period of alcoholism. In the final multivariate analysis model, having no formal education (OR = 17.47, 95% CI = 5.17-76.69), consuming a non-suitable breakfast within two hours of waking (OR = 8.99, 95% CI = 2.85-35.50) and the consumption of capsaicin ˃ 29.9 mg capsaicin per day (OR = 3.77, 95% CI = 1.21-13.11) were factors associated with GC.


an association was found by multivariate analysis between the presence of GC and education, type of breakfast and the consumption of capsaicin. These variables are susceptible to intervention and can be identified via the QUFA-GC(c).

Palabras clave : Gastric cancer; Educational level; Suitable breakfast; No suitable breakfast; Capsaicin.

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