versión impresa ISSN 1134-928X
ROJAS OCANA, Mª. J.; TORONJO GOMEZ, A.; RODRIGUEZ PONCE, C. y RODRIGUEZ RODRIGUEZ, J.B.. Autonomy and health status perceived by elderly institutionalised people. Gerokomos (Madr., Ed. impr.) [online]. 2006, vol.17, n.1, pp.08-23. ISSN 1134-928X.
The admission to a residence has been termed "institutionalization" in order to differentiate it from community care and to emphasize its nature as a specialisation. On admission to a centre, old people who are not invalid cease to perform certain tasks due to an adjustment process, which can result in passive behaviour; this in turn creates dependency. All old people, when enter a geriatric centre for the first time, undergo a period of adaptation and observation that lasts 20 days, after which they are evaluated by a technical committee. In a study previously made in the same population it was possible to be stated, referring us to the translated functional capacity in AVD and AIVD and to the perception of the health of the residents, during the first 20 days of entrance (period of adaptation) that the results show the existence of a significant relation between the autonomy and independence of an old person and a its deterioration due to the institutionalization, simultaneously it is deduced that the elder during this period of adaptation do not undergo significant changes in their perception of health by the fact of the institutionalization, although is certain that this period is only of 20 days according to the Legislation of the Social Services in Andalusia and that is not enough time to demonstrate the changes. Believing necessary a pursuit but in the long term, we tried to make a second valuation of the aspects previously mentioned and measured after passing a sufficiently ample period (year and a half) like being able to state if the deterioration persists or not in the autonomy and independence of the elderly people to perform daily life and instrumental activities, as well as if their perception of health stays. Objetive: To evaluate the influence of institutionalisation on an old persons autonomy on admittance to a geriatric residence for non-invalids, and the comparison with their behaviour after the period of a year and a half of institutionalization. Methods: A pre-experimental design with a pre- and posttest study of a single group during two different periods, that is to say, a measurement before and after of an intervention which in this case is defined as time. Dependent variables: Level of Autonomy. To measure the capacity of an old person in relation to everyday activities using the Barthel Scale (ABVD) Basic Activities of Daily Life; and the Lawton Scale (AIVD) Instrumental Activities of Daily Life. Independent variable: Admission of the old person into the Institution. This is the variable that could modify, or otherwise, the level of autonomy. Socio-demographic variables: Age; sex; background; civil status; acquisitive capability; reason for admission. Conclusion: Within the programme of adaptation in an institution, priority must be given to the organisational adaptation of the centre to the needs of the users and not the contrary. The users family should be involved as much as possible in order to preserve the physical and psychological autonomy of the old person at all times.
Palabras clave : Institutionalization; dependency; adaptation.