versión impresa ISSN 1134-928X
BALLESTEROS PEREZ, Esperanza; SANCHEZ, Pablo David; TORRES EGEA, Pilar y PALMA FERRANDO, Montserrat. Approach to a local home care service. Gerokomos [online]. 2006, vol.17, n.4, pp.181-188. ISSN 1134-928X.
The progressive aging of the Spanish population and the demographical relevancy of the eldest is shown in percentage statistics, which state that 17 of each 100 of the Spanish population are 65 years old or over. Furthermore, the decrease of the mortality rate and the increase of the morbidity rate, result in an important relevancy of dependency, fragility and need of long term care in such population group. Families are the main care providers in 80% of the situations, being considered as the main social-health element because their large provision of care to the eldest. The documental background reviewed highlights the relevance of the complementation between the professional and the informal care services networks. The Home Care Service (SAD) of L'Hospitalet de Llobregat City Council provides different services such as personal clean, clean up of clothes and home, home shopping, tele-assistance, assistance in several personal affaires. Goals of the research: Describe the socio-demographical profile and the dependency situations of L'Hospitalet de Llobregat Home Care Service's users. Take knowledge of the profile and the health situation of the main caregiver of SADs users. Materials and methods: The population studied was formed by 320 users, an important part of the total number of users (358) of SADs services. The requirements to be included in the study were being a SADs services user during the study (from February 2004 to May 2004) and accepting voluntarily to participate in the study. For the user's evaluation there were used two different validated questionnaires: Barber, Barthel, Pfeiffer and Lawton. They were also used two own made questionnaires to know other characteristics: health problems, management of the mediation, and the relationship of the SAD with the health first cares centre. The information was collected in the visits undertaken by Nursery students at the user's home. The statistic analysis consists in the descriptive analysis of the aforementioned issues variables and has been undertaken with the statistical software SPSS 11.0. Results: The user's analyzed average age is 82 years old, being the most of them women (77.3%). Regarding the civil status, more than a half are widow/er (58.6%), married 24.9%, single 10.7% and divorced a 5.9%. The distribution of the independency level of SADs users included in the study, in accordance with Barthel Model were respectively of moderate dependency (50,1%), severe dependency (24%), full dependency (12.5%), independent (7.6%) and little dependency (5.9%). With regards to the ability to carry out instrumental activities according to Lawton and Brody questionnaires, 51.6% needed some assistance, a 46.6% needed much assistance, and only a 1.8% of the users are independent. The most requested assistance is focused in the following activities: personal clean (28%), home clean up and home shopping (16.9%), the other 18 services evaluated its necessity rate is under the 10%. Some of the issues detected along the study by the student were the following: solitude, sadness, poorness, and a possible weariness of the caregiver role. Conclusions: The profiles of most of SADs users analyzed are women, over aged, with a high level of dependency, who present several pathologies, solitude and a lack of economical resources. One of the issues detected by thestudents in the home visits undertaken is the risk of the weariness of the caregiver role.
Palabras clave : Home care service; dependency; main caregiver.