versión impresa ISSN 1134-928X
LAGUNA-PARRAS, Juan Manuel et al. Effectiveness of interventions for prevention falls in the elderly: systematic review. Gerokomos [online]. 2010, vol.21, n.3, pp.97-107. ISSN 1134-928X.
Aims: to identify the main causes of falls and determine which interventions are effective to prevent accidental falls. Methods: Systematic review over studies of falls in the hospital. This review includes clinical trials, case/control, cohort and observational studies published since each databae indexing until December 2009. Results: we reviewed a total of 60 studies; of these, 37 were eventually included in the review after conducting an analysis of their methodological quality using the CASP. The main causes of falls are related to age, chronic disease (Parkinson's, dementia, Alzheimer's), medication and pre/post operative. There are several interventions that have proven to be effective and reduce the number of falls. Conclusions: all studies have generally applied preventive interventions based on identified risk and /or disease in groups of patients. Preventive interventions that have proven efficacy are: the correct use of the placement of protective elements, establishing parameters for the identification of possible risk factors that could cause a fall; evaluate the frequency of falls; to establish a scale of care dependence and compare it with the model of risk factors; analyze extrinsic risk factors favoring falls; use a score to identify patients at high risk, to establish a falls intervention program and develop strategies for prevention.
Palabras clave : Fall prevention; fall in the elderly; fall in hospital inpatients; interventions; fall risk.