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Revista Española de Salud Pública

On-line version ISSN 2173-9110Print version ISSN 1135-5727


FERNANDEZ-PRADA, María et al. Design and Validation of a Questionnaire on Vaccination in Students of Health Sciences, Spain. Rev. Esp. Salud Publica [online]. 2016, vol.90, e40023.  Epub Nov 07, 2016. ISSN 2173-9110.


Immunization rates among medicine and nursing students -and among health professional in general- during hospital training are low. It is necessary to investigate the causes for these low immunization rates. The objective of this study was to design and validate a questionnaire for exploring the attitudes and behaviours of medicine and nursing students toward immunization of vaccine-preventable diseases.


An instrument validation study. The sample included 646 nursing and medicine students at University of Oviedo, Spain. It was a non-ramdom sampling. After the content validation process, a 24-item questionnaire was designed to assess attitudes and behaviours/behavioural intentions. Reliability (ordinal alpha), internal validity (exploratory factor analysis by parellel analysis), ANOVA and mediational model tests were performed.


Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors which accounted for 48.8% of total variance. Ordinal alpha for the total score was 0.92. Differences were observed across academic years in the dimensions of attitudes (F5.447=3.728;p<0.003) and knowledge (F5.448=65.59;p<0.001), but not in behaviours/behavioural intentions (F5.461=1.680;p<0.138). Attitudes demonstrated to be a moderating variable of knowledge and attitudes/behavioural attitudes (Indirect effect B=0.15; SD=0.3; 95% CI:0.09-0.19).


We developed a questionnaie based on sufficient evidence of reliability and internal validity. Scores on attitudes and knowledge increase with the academic year. Attitudes act as a moderating variable between knowledge and behaviours/behavioural intentions.

Keywords : Questionnaire; Immunization; Medical students; Students; Nursing; Attitude to Health; Health Behavior; Health knowledge; attitudes; practice; Vaccines.

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