Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
versión impresa ISSN 1137-6627
Ophthalmopathy is a common manifestation of autoimmune thyroid disease. Periorbital swelling, eyelid lag, exophthalmos, and impaired vision may occur. From 25% to 50% of patients with Graves hyperthyroidism will have some features of ophthalmopathy. All of the clinically significant eye symptoms and findings among patients with Graves ophthalmopathy can be traced to one of two phenomena: swelling in the retrobulbar space due to deposition of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) or restriction of extraocular muscle motion, which is attributed to initial swelling and later fibrosis. Patients with Graves eye disease typically complain of ocular or periocular pain, lacrimation, photophobia, blurred vision, diplopia, or impaired perception of colour. On examination, they exhibit orbital congestion, proptosis, optic neuropathy, restricted gaze, divergent visual axis, corneal exposure, lid retraction, and periorbital edema. This paper describes the main clinical features of Graves ophthalmopathy, in order to establish measurable and reproducible classifications that can be used in the surgery setting to record changes and to guide and assess therapy. Finally, we recommend the use of objective measurements for proptosis, extraocular movements, corneal alterations, and the optic nerve, using the clinical activity scale or a recorded change in objective measurements to document disease activity, and lastly, documenting the patients perception of their disease status.
Palabras clave : Graves disease; Ophthalmopathy; Exophthalmos; Lid retraction; Orbital decompression.