Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
versión impresa ISSN 1137-6627
Uveal metastases are the most frequent malign intraocular tumour, of which more than 80% are localized in the choroids. This, together with the progressive increase in its incidence, makes its study and review necessary for a correct diagnosis and treatment in current clinical practice. Etiology varies according to the sex of the patient: lung carcinoma metastasises most frequently in men and breast carcinoma in women. These tend to multifocality and are generally localized in the posterior pole. Fifty percent of cases follow an asymptomatic development, but they can cause loss of vision, scotomas, metamorphopsias and photopsias. Charactersitic ophthamoscopic examination shows a placoid, homogenous choroidal lesion with a creamy appearance. The differential diagnosis must consider the amelanotic nevus, choroidal amelanotic melanoma, choroidal haemangioma, rear scleritis, choroidal osteoma, chorioretinitis, Haradas disease, rhegmatogenous retina detachment, uveal effusion syndrome, and serous central chorioretinopathy. An exhaustive history and complete ophthalmological examination are essential to the diagnosis, to which fluorescein angiography, ocular echography, fine needle puncture aspiration (FNPA), computerized tomography and magnetic resonance can be added as complementary tests. Treatment of these tumours is usually the systemic treatment of the primary tumour; the possibilities of local treatment are observation, external radiotherapy, transpupillary thermotherapy and enucleation.
Palabras clave : Carcinoma; Melanoma; Choroidal hemangioma.