Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
versión impresa ISSN 1137-6627
ARTIEDA, J. et al. Brain oscillations: pathophysiological and therapeutic role in some neurological and psychiatric diseases. Anales Sis San Navarra [online]. 2009, vol.32, suppl.3, pp.45-60. ISSN 1137-6627.
The terms «oscillations» or «oscillatory activity» are frequently used not only to define the rhythmic fluctuations of the postsynaptic potentials of a neuronal group (local field potentials) or a cortical region (EEG, MEG), but also to indicate the rhythmic discharge pattern of action potentials from a neuron or a small group of neurons. Oscillatory activity makes possible the synchronization of different neuronal groups from nearby or distant cortical regions that participate in the same motor, sensory or cognitive task. The presence of oscillatory activity is usually associated to the existence of synchronization, but both phenomena are not necessarily always equivalent. Abnormalities of oscillatory activities or synchronization within or between different brain structures have been described in several neurological and psychiatric diseases; these abnormalities might play a relevant pathophysiological role in Parkinson´s disease (and other movement disorders), schizophrenia or epilepsy. This review discusses all these aspects, with emphasis on their potential role both as a basic mechanism in brain function and as a pathophysiological substrate for some of the symptoms and signs observed in several diseases.
Palabras clave : Oscillations; Basal ganglia; Parkinson´s disease; Epilepsy; Schizophrenia.