Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
versión impresa ISSN 1137-6627
AYECHU, A. y DURA, T.. Quality of dietary habits (adherence to a mediterranean diet) in pupils of compulsory secondary education. Anales Sis San Navarra [online]. 2010, vol.33, n.1, pp.35-42. ISSN 1137-6627.
Background. The Mediterranean diet is considered to be a prototype of a healthy diet. The modernization of society implies sociological and cultural changes that affect feeding preferences and habits. The aim of this paper is to determine the quality index of the dietary habits in pupils of compulsory secondary education (CSE). Material and methods. By distributing a 16 item questionnaire (kidmed test) to a random sample of 1,956 pupils of CSE (966 males and 990 females). The final score or kidmed index (range 0-12) indicates whether the degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet is low (0-3), medium (4-7) or high (8-12). Results. A low kidmed index value was registered in 6.7% of the pupils of CSE, whereas medium values corresponded to 50.4% and low values to 42.9%, showing no significant statistical differences between the sexes. The kidmed index decreases progressively with age (p<0.05). At age 13 (first year of CSE), 49.5% of the pupils had an optimal score on the kidmed index, whereas at 16 (fourth year of CSE), this score reached 37.2%. There were statistical differences (p<0.05) regarding consumption of fruit, fish, nuts and dried foods, sweets and factory produced baked foodstuffs; pupils also frequently went without breakfast and ate at fast food restaurants. Conclusions. By the end of CSE, 62.8% of pupils showed a low-medium degree of adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Applicable food advice for these adolescents would be to increase consumption of fruit, vegetables, nuts, pasta and rice, yogurt and cheese, pulses and fish; and to reduce consumption of factory produced baked foodstuffs and sweets and to eat less at fast food restaurants; besides insisting on the importance of daily breakfast and the use olive oil for cooking. In addition, it would be convenient to develop nutrition education programs during compulsory education.
Palabras clave : Adolescents; Mediterranean diet; Dietary habits.