Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
versión impresa ISSN 1137-6627
DOMINGUEZ-ORTEGA, J. y GRUPO ESPLORA et al. Allergic sensitization profile in the immigrant population living in the central region of Spain. Anales Sis San Navarra [online]. 2011, vol.34, n.1, pp.43-50. ISSN 1137-6627.
Introduction. The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased worldwide in the last two decades, particularly in developed countries. Respiratory allergy is determined by genetic heredity, influenced by environmental factors. Migration is a good epidemiological model for assessing the influence of the environment. We present the clinical characteristics of respiratory allergy in immigrants in the central region of Spain. Methods. We prospectively collected data on all immigrants referred to the allergy units of 7 different hospitals in Madrid, Cuenca and Ciudad Real in March 2010. Respiratory Allergy was diagnosed using a standard study for allergic diseases. Results in immigrants were compared with data from a similar Spanish population. Results. Sixty-two immigrants and 32 Spanish patients were evaluated (63% female, mean age 28.4 years). Their countries of origin were uniformly distributed among 3 macroareas (North of Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe). More than 96% presented rhinitis, although persistent rhinitis was more prevalent amongst Latin Americans (76.9%) than in the Spanish population (48%). No differences were observed in asthma prevalence, although immigrants had higher rates of non-controlled and partially controlled asthma. The mean time of onset of symptoms after immigration was 43 months. Grass pollen was the most relevant allergen with the exception of Arab patients. Sensitization to polcalcin was rare. Otherwise, 44.1% of the Spanish population was sensitized to profilin (only 4.88% among immigrants) although this sensitization did not associate allergy to fruits or other vegetables. Conclusions. In summary, a multicentric study is presented where significant differences have been observed in the sensitization pattern and clinical evolution of respiratory allergy in immigrants and the Spanish population.
Palabras clave : Respiratory allergy; Allergy; Immigrants; Sensitization; Spain.